Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ruellia brevifolia
(Pohl) C.Ezcurra, Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Ruellia graecizans Backer; Stephanophysum longifolium Pohl

Common name(s): [more details]

English: common wild petunia

French: petit-oiseau-rouge-de-la-forêt

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect perennial herbs 0.5-1 m tall.  Leaves green, lower surface paler, ovate, 4-13 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide, hispidulous, white cystoliths numerous and conspicuous, petioles 6-30 mm long.  Flowers in cymose panicles, each flower subtended by 2 linear bracts 2-4 mm long; calyx lobes 5, linear, ca. 10 mm long; corolla bright red, 2.7-3.2 cm long.  Capsules clavate, 1.4-1.7 cm long, inconspicuously puberulent"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 174, 1856).

Habitat/ecology:  Cultivated as an ornamental and naturalizes.  In Australia, naturalized in disturbed rainforest in coastal north Queensland (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; p. 130).  In Fiji, "sometimes locally frequent as a naturalized weed from near sea level to about 400 m on hillsides, along trails and roadsides, and in coconut plantations"  (Smith, 1991; p. 122).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated as an ornamental and now naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 174).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical South America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Exploring Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Voucher cited: Graeffe 117
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Voucher cited: Smith 1044
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 127805)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Voucher cited: Smith 7503, Gillespie 4535, Parks 20489
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 127807)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 127808)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633559)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Vouchers cited: Gillespie 4713, DA 8935
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 127804)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Voucher cited: Bierhorst 104A
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Voucher cited: DA 10202
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vatu Vara Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Voucher cited: Bryan 597
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vatu Vara Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 127802)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vatu Vara Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 127803)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 122-123)
Vouchers cited: DA 10273, DA 11418, Greenwood 10, Vaughan 3160, Gillespie 2945, Tothill 655, DA 11240, H. B. R. Parham 4, Meebold 16924
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 33852)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 127806)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 127809)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 127810)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia graecizans Backer
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 174)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2010) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 070403-03 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 4)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: F. Starr & K. Martz 010728-1 (BISH), Oppenheimer H60116 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H60126 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110143 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 174)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 130)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé/±envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (pp. 337, 349)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 346)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Ruellia brevifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Ruellia brevifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Ruellia brevifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 127802 (Bryan, E.H., Jr. 597).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 127803 (Bryan, E.H., Jr. 597).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 127806 (Parks, H.E. 20489).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 127810 (Gillespie, J.W. 2945).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 127804 (Gillespie, J.W. 4713).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 127807 (Gillespie, J.W. 4535).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 127809 (Meebold, A. 16924).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 127805 (Smith, A.C. 1044).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 127808 (Smith, A.C. 7503).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 33852 (Parham, J.W. 11418).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633559 (Regalado, J. 556).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Dassanayake, M. D., gen. ed. 1994. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Vol VIII. Amerind Pub. Co., New Delhi. 458 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe. 2004. Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific Islands. Diversity and Distributions 10 (2004): 333-347.

Oppenheimer, Hank L. 2003. New plant records from Maui and Hawai‘i Counties. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 73:3-30.

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. 2010. New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2008. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:61-68.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 OCT 2006.