Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rubus niveus
Thunb., Rosaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hong pao ci teng

English: Ceylon raspberry, hill raspberry, Mysore raspberry

Spanish: frambuesa, mora

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs; stems up to 20 dm long, tomentulose when young or glabrous and glaucous, covered with stout, hooked prickles 3-7 mm long, their bases usually longitudinally elongated, bark of older stems not shredding.  Leaves pinnately compound, leaflets 5-9, elliptic-ovate to elliptic, 2.5-6 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, the terminal one often broadly ovate, more or less lobed on one side, and up to 5 cm wide, upper surface glabrous, lower surface densely white tomentose, margins serrate, petiolules 0-0.1 cm long, petioles and rachis usually with curved prickles.  Flowers in short, terminal, cymose panicles, densely tomentose and with scattered prickles, pedicels 6-12 mm long; petals rose purple, broadly obovate to suborbicular, ca 4-5 mm long.  Fruit dark red, becoming reddish black, subglobose, ca. 1 cm long, white tomentulose" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1110, 1891).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forest edges, riparian habitats, woodland, disturbed sites.  As other species of the genus, this shrub forms dense and impenetrable thickets due to the arching and intertwining stems.  It displaces native vegetation, impedes regeneration of native shrubs and trees and affects wildlife habitats"  (Weber, 2003; p. 372).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and now naturalized" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1110). "Smothers smaller plants and impedes passage"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 137).

Propagation:  Fruits spread by birds and rodents.

Native range:  India to southeastern Asia, the Philippines and Indonesia (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1110).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1110, 1891)
Voucher cited: Krauss 966 (BISH), Nagata 2939 (HLA)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Nagata, Kenneth M. (1995) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Nagata 4233 (BISH, HLA, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Flynn, Tim/Lorence, David H. (1998) (p. 6)
Plants removed. Voucher cited: Galen Kawakami s.n. (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1110)
Voucher cited: Hobdy 2610 (BISH)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 229)
In thickets, altitude 1,300 to 1,600 m.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Thickets on slopes, sparse forests, montane valleys, stream sides, flood plains; 500-2800 m".
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control:  See "Blackberry control manual: management and control options for blackberry (Rubus spp.) in Australia"  (Victoria Dept. Prim. Ind., 2009).

Physical: Isolated plants may be grubbed out, but any remaining roots will sprout.

Chemical:  "Sensitive to drizzle application of triclopyr ester in a crop oil carrier at 1 lb/acre, and to very-low-volume basal bark applications of triclopyr ester at 15% product in a crop oil carrier.  Reportedly tolerant of triclopyr with water as the carrier (Glenn Shishido, DOFAW)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Report on "white stem" form from US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Hawaii "Plants of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Report on "red stem" form from US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Hawaii "Plants of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.

Additional online information about Rubus niveus is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Rubus niveus as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Rubus niveus may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Flynn, Tim/Lorence, David H. 1998. New naturalized plant records for the Hawaiian Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1997. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 56:5-6.

Lawesson, J. E. 1990. Alien plants in the Galapagos Islands: a summary. Monogr. Sys. Bot. Missouri Bot. Garden 32:15-20.

McMullen, C. K. 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Comstock Pub. Assoc., Ithaca, N.Y. 370 p.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Nagata, Kenneth M. 1995. New Hawaiian plant records IV. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 42:10-13.

Soria, M./Taylor, U./Tye, A./Wilkenson, S. R. 2002. Identificación y manajo de malezas en las isles Galapágos. Fundación Charles Darwin, Parque Nacional Galapágos. 69 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Victoria, Australia, Department of Primary Industry. 2009. Blackberry control manual: management and control options for blackberry (Rubus spp.) in Australia. 96 pp.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 28 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 12 MAR 2012.