Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rubus moluccanus
L., Rosaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: eelkek, Molucca bramble, Molucca raspberry, wild bramble, wild raspberry

Fijian: soni, wa ngandrongandro, wa sori, wa votovotoa, wa vuka, wagadogadro, wavotovotoa, wavuka

French: piquant lou-lou

Kosraean: kohkihl, kokol, kokul

Kwara‘ae: kwalo faraka‘u

Solomon Pijin: caru caru

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Rubus moluccanus has a simple leaf and is a scrambling shrub reaching 2 to 3 m high. The stems and leaves are armed with medium sized spines. The leaves are large and lobed and the upper surface hairy. The leaf has a crinkled surface and the underside is white. The flowers are white and borne in clusters. The berries are about 1 cm across. They are red and with little flavor." (Ecoport).

"Tall scrambling shrub or climber; stems clothed with short rusty or white woolly hairs, armed with numerous prickles. Leaf blades simple, broadly cordate-ovate, usually 3- or 5-lobed, 3-20 cm x 2.5-18 cm, glabrous or sparsely hairy above, densely white or rusty hairy below.  Flowers pinkish-red in irregular panicles in upper axils.  Aggregate fruits red, ca 1.2 cm diameter" (Stanley and Ross, 1983; vol. 1, p. 233).

Habitat/ecology:  A spiny, high-climbing brier.  Favors wet lowland areas.  In Fiji, "sometimes locally abundant from near sea level to an elevation of 1,100 m, on forest edges or in secondary forest or thickets"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 39-40).

Propagation:  Bird-dispersed fruits.

Native range:  Himalayas through Malaysia to Australia, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia and Fiji. Smith (1985; pp. 39-40) says that var. austropacificus van Royen is indigenous to the Caroline Islands, New Britain [Vanuatu], the Solomon Islands, northern Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji.  Fosberg, Sachet & Oliver (1979; p. 89) list it as a native on Kosrae.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 89)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island probably native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 7)
Voucher: BMW 5754 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 23)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island uncertain if native
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 19)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38950)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38981)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 173181)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 173182)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 173183)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 173189)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 429563)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 627028)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 627029)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 627030)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 659846)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687663)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Smith 113
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 173163)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Bryan 330
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 173159)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 173160)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Milne 166
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Milne 262
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Vouchers cited: Smith 1746, DA 12919,  Greenwood 621, Smith 554, Bierhorst F59
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 173161)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 173162)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Vouchers cited: Degener & Ordonez 13519, Smith 4835, Tabualewa 15631, DA 9198 (McKee 2761), Smith 8760, Gillespie 2483, St. John 18197, DA 9910, DA 7514, Parks 20286A, DA 9938, DA 7514, Parks 20286A, DA 9938, DA 5941, Seemann 147
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 6950)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 34311)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 173154)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173155)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 173156)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173157)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 173158)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 173164)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 173165)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173166)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 173167)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173168)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 173169)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Milne 386
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 6488)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 202)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 55)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 228-229)
Common in forests at medium and higher altitudes, to very wet reegions also at low altitudes.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 173187)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 173184)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: van Royen 16444
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 106)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 76)
Vulnerable
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 193)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1988) (pp. 187-204)

Comments:  A serious pest on the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. On U.S. Federal noxious weed list.

Control:  See other Rubus species for control suggestions.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 MAR 2012.