Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rubus moluccanus
L., Rosaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: eelkek, Molucca bramble, Molucca raspberry, wild bramble, wild raspberry

Fijian: soni, wa ngandrongandro, wa sori, wa votovotoa, wa vuka, wagadogadro, wavotovotoa, wavuka

French: piquant lou-lou

Kosraean: kohkihl, kokol, kokul

Kwara‘ae: kwalo faraka‘u

Solomon Pijin: caru caru

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Rubus moluccanus has a simple leaf and is a scrambling shrub reaching 2 to 3 m high. The stems and leaves are armed with medium sized spines. The leaves are large and lobed and the upper surface hairy. The leaf has a crinkled surface and the underside is white. The flowers are white and borne in clusters. The berries are about 1 cm across. They are red and with little flavor." (Ecoport).

"Tall scrambling shrub or climber; stems clothed with short rusty or white woolly hairs, armed with numerous prickles. Leaf blades simple, broadly cordate-ovate, usually 3- or 5-lobed, 3-20 cm x 2.5-18 cm, glabrous or sparsely hairy above, densely white or rusty hairy below.  Flowers pinkish-red in irregular panicles in upper axils.  Aggregate fruits red, ca 1.2 cm diameter" (Stanley and Ross, 1983; vol. 1, p. 233).

Habitat/ecology:  A spiny, high-climbing brier.  Favors wet lowland areas.  In Fiji, "sometimes locally abundant from near sea level to an elevation of 1,100 m, on forest edges or in secondary forest or thickets"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 39-40).

Propagation:  Bird-dispersed fruits.

Native range:  Himalayas through Malaysia to Australia, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia and Fiji. Smith (1985; pp. 39-40) says that var. austropacificus van Royen is indigenous to the Caroline Islands, New Britain [Vanuatu], the Solomon Islands, northern Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji.  Fosberg, Sachet & Oliver (1979; p. 89) list it as a native on Kosrae.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 89)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island probably native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 7)
Voucher: BMW 5754 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 23)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island uncertain if native
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 19)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38950)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38981)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 173181)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 173182)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 173183)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 173189)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 429563)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 627028)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 627029)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 627030)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 659846)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687663)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Smith 113
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 173163)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Bryan 330
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 173159)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 173160)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Milne 166
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Milne 262
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Vouchers cited: Smith 1746, DA 12919,  Greenwood 621, Smith 554, Bierhorst F59
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 173161)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 173162)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Vouchers cited: Degener & Ordonez 13519, Smith 4835, Tabualewa 15631, DA 9198 (McKee 2761), Smith 8760, Gillespie 2483, St. John 18197, DA 9910, DA 7514, Parks 20286A, DA 9938, DA 7514, Parks 20286A, DA 9938, DA 5941, Seemann 147
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 6950)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 34311)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 173154)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173155)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 173156)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173157)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 173158)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 173164)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 173165)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifica P.Royen
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173166)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 173167)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173168)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 173169)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: Milne 386
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 6488)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 202)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 55)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 228-229)
Common in forests at medium and higher altitudes, to very wet reegions also at low altitudes.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 173187)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 173184)
Taxon name on voucher: Rubus moluccanus L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Voucher cited: van Royen 16444
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 106)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 39-41)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 76)
Vulnerable
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 193)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1988) (pp. 187-204)

Comments:  A serious pest on the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. On U.S. Federal noxious weed list.

Control:  See other Rubus species for control suggestions.

Additional information:
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.

Additional online information about Rubus moluccanus is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Rubus moluccanus as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Rubus moluccanus may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 173159 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 330).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1923. Voucher specimen #BISH 6488 (Krauss, N.L.H. 126).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 173160 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 330).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173155 (Parks, H.E. 20286A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173157 (Gillespie, J.W. 2483).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173166 (Gillespie, J.W. 4072).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173168 (Parks, H.E. 20739).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 173187 (Kajewski, S.F. 2673).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 173154 (Meebold, A. 16435).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 173184 (Brass, L.J. 3102).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 173161 (Smith, A.C. 554).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 173163 (Smith, A.C. 113).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 173189 (Hosokawa, T. 6293).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 173162 (Smith, A.C. 1746).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 173181 (Takamatsu, M. 473).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 173182 (Takamatsu, M. 529).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 173156 (St.John, H. 18197).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 6950 (Meebold, A. 26540).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 173169 (Degener, O. 13519).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 173164 (Tabualewa, A. 15631).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 173167 (Degener, O. 14302).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1945. Voucher specimen #BISH 173183 (St.John, H. 21447).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 38950 (Fosberg, F.R. 26659).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 38981 (Fosberg, F.R. 26667).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 173165 (Smith, A.C. 4835).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 173158 (Smith, A.C. 8760).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 34311 (Degener, O. 32034).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 429563 (Stemmermann, R.L. 2699).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 627028 (M.Merlin 805).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 627029 (M.Merlin 806).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 627030 (M.Merlin 807).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 659846 (Rinehart, A. LR 25402).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2000. Voucher specimen #BISH 687663 (Waterhouse, B.M. BMW5754).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. 1988. Diversity, density, and invasion in a Mauritian wet forest. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Garden 25:187-204.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2005. Botanical survey of the Yela River valley, Kosrae, F.S.M. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii. 19 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Mune, T. L./Parham, J. W. 1967. The declared noxious weeds of Fiji and their control. Third edition. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 48. 87 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

Stanley, T. D./Ross, E. M. 1989. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Misc. Pub. 81020. 3 Volumes.

U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 MAR 2012.