Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rubus ellipticus
Sm., Rosaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: tuo yuan xuan gou zi

English: yellow Himalayan raspberry

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Stout, weakly climbing, evergreen shrubs; stems often 30-40 dm long, forming impenetrable thickets several m wide, primocanes usually erect, covered with usually spreading prickles up to 5 mm long, floricanes covered with stout, recurved, longitudinally elongate prickles up to 6 mm long and densely covered with slender, spreading prickles, also sparsely to moderately pilose.  Leaves persistent, palmately compound, thick, leaflets 3, broadly obcordate, the terminal one largest, usually 6-8 cm long, 5-6.5 cm wide, those of the primocanes slightly smaller, upper surface sparsely pilose, lower surface densely velvety pilose, midrib with a few small, stout, recurved prickles and smaller straight ones, margins serrate, petiolules 1.5-3 cm long, petiolules and petioles densely covered with long, straight prickles and scattered stout, recurved prickles, also sparsely to moderately pilose.  Flowers in short, terminal panicles, tomentose and covered throughout with short prickles, pedicels 3-10 mm long; petals white, obovate, 7-9 mm long.  Fruit yellow, depressed-hemispherical, ca. 0.8 cm long, glabrous"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1107-1108).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, wet places.  This shrub forms inpenetrable thickets that displace native vegetation and affect wildlife by impeding movement and reducing habitats.  Scattered clumps expand and form in time a continuous cover on the floor"  (Weber, 2003; p. 370).  "A pest of forests and pastures.  Smothers smaller plants and impedes passage"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

In Hawai‘i, found in wet habitats between 700-1,700 m.

Propagation:  Seed dispersed by frugivorous birds and other animals. The plants spread locally from underground shoots. The species regenerates rapidly from underground shoots after fire.

Native range:  "Tropical and subtropical India, widely grown as an ornamental in warm regions" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1107-1108).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1107, 1109)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 41609 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2007) (pp. 10-11)
Var. obcordatus Focke. Voucher cited: R. Smith OISC 004 (BISH). "The surrounding area was surveyed and all located plants were controlled".
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 227)
In thickets and on open slopes, altitude 1,300 to 1,600 m.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 7)

Control:  See "Blackberry control manual: management and control options for blackberry (Rubus spp.) in Australia"  (Victoria Dept. Prim. Ind., 2009).

Physical: Isolated plants may be grubbed out, but any remaining roots will sprout.

Chemical:  "Effective control was achieved by drizzle application of triclopyr ester at 40% in water and picloram at 20% in water applied to cut stumps.  Applications to cut stumps with 50% imazapyr product in water, 50% triclopyr amine product in water, triclopyr ester in diesel oil and metsulfuron (about 1 oz./qt. or 28 g/l) were effective.  Applications of 20% picloram product and 50% of Crossbow® (Dow Agrosciences) in water were less effective.  Sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr at 1 lb/acre and metsulfuron at 0.75 oz./acre.  Also very sensitive to triclopyr at 1 lb/acre applied by drizzle application in a crop oil carrier.  HAVO staff reported control with foliar application of glyphosate at 1% product or cut-stump applications at 10% product in water (Chris Zimmer, HAVO)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 28 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 12 MAR 2012.