Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rotheca serrata
(L.) Steane & Mabb., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 4 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Rotheca serrata)

Other Latin names:  Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon; Volkameria serrata L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Other: bharangi

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "C[lerodedrum]. serratum is a perennial woody shrub native to East India and Malaysia, up to 3-8 ft in height with blunt quadrangular stems. Mature roots are hard, woody and cylindrical in shape with 1-1.5 cm in diameter, 2-3 cm in length and are pale brown externally and yellowish brown internally. Young roots are smooth or finely longitudinally striated while the older ones are somewhat rough, longitudinally ridged or furrowed and exfoliated at places exposing the inner wood. It breaks with hard fracture and has acrid taste and characteristic odor. The bark is acrid, thin, breaks with short fracture and easily separated from a broad wood showing marked medullary rays and concentric growth rings. Leaves are compound (usually three at the node), arranged oppositely, narrowly obovate to oblong with serrate margin, glabrous surface, acute apex and stout petioles. Flowers are blue with many long cylindrical thyrsus and flowering occur in the month of August-September. They are bisexual, zygomorphic and rarely sub-actinomorphic and bracteolate. They show corolla with a slender tube, five spreading lobes, epipetalous stamens, 1 or 2-celled longitudinally dehiscing anther and persistent disc with sub-terminal, gynobasic style and superior ovary with 2-cell having 2-ovules in each. Fruits are subglobose and glabrous drupes with 5-14 mm length and 58 mm width and usually separating into pyrenes at maturity. The seeds are four lobed and oblong with little or no endosperm (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 2001; Bhangri, 2004, 2012a,, 2012b, 2012c; Clerodendrum serratum, 2010) (Fig. 1)." (Jagruti et al. 2014, p. 270)

Habitat/ecology:  "C[lerodendrum]. serratum is a small perennial shrub growing in moist deciduous forests and occasionally in plains of peninsular India and the Western and Eastern Himalayas up to 1400 ft above sea level (Sharma et al., 2009). It is found in lower Himalayas from Kumaun eastwards, west Bengal and Bihar and distributed throughout in forests of Sri Lanka and India. It is documented to be found in South Africa, Madagascar, South Asia and South East Asian countries also." (Jagruti et al. 2014, p. 270)

"Forests on mountain slopes and in valleys at elevations of 200 - 1,800 metres" (Useful Tropical Plants)

Propagation:  "Seed - best sown as soon as possible. Germination can be erratic but usually takes place within 20 - 60 days at 20c [164]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until large enough to plant out." (Useful Tropical Plants)

Native range:  The native range of Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. (Lamiaceae) includes South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, China, Afganistan, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Malaysia. (GRIN)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Asia
Asia
Afganistan native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Asia
Asia
Bhutan native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Asia
Asia
Nepal native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Asia
Asia
Pakistan native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
Patel, Jagruti J./Acharya, Sanjeev R./Acharya, Niyata S. (2014) (p. 270)
accessed 20180126; "East India and Malaysia"
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; presumably cultivated in Reunion, since GRIN reports it to be established outside its native range ("naturalized")
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
invasive
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; presumably cultivated in Madagascar, since GRIN reports it to be both native and established outside its native range ("naturalized") in Mauritius
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Invasive Species Specialist Group (2017)
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka native
Patel, Jagruti J./Acharya, Sanjeev R./Acharya, Niyata S. (2014) (p. 270)
accessed 20180126; "peninsular India and the Western and Eastern Himalayas up to 1400 ft above sea level (Sharma et al., 2009). It is found in lower Himalayas from Kumaun eastwards, west Bengal and Bihar and distributed throughout in forests of Sri Lanka and India. It is documented to be found in South Africa, Madagascar, South Asia and South East Asian countries"
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Africa
Africa
Madagascar native
invasive
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; presumably cultivated in Madagascar, since GRIN reports it to be both native and established outside its native range ("naturalized") in Madagascar
India
India
India (Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)
India
India
India (Republic of) native
Patel, Jagruti J./Acharya, Sanjeev R./Acharya, Niyata S. (2014) (p. 270)
accessed 20180126; "East India and Malaysia"
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180126; GRIN reports this species to be cultivated (location[s] not explicitly cited)

Comments:  Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. (Lamiaceae) is reported to be in cultivation (location[s] unspecified), and is reported to be established outside its native range ("naturalized") in Madagascar, Mauritius, and Reunion. (GRIN)

"Range: E. Asia - southern China, Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia." (Useful Tropical Plants)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Rotheca serrata, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 24 MAY 2018.