Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Rivina humilis
L., Phytolaccaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Rivina laevis L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shu zhu shan hu

English: baby pepper, bloodberry, coral berry, pigeonberry, rouge plant

French: groseille, petite groseille

Spanish: coralito

Tongan: polo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Plants 4-10 dm tall, rarely taller.  Leaves usually widely spaced, 4-12 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, both surfaces glabrous or puberulent especially along veins, petioles 1-3.5 cm long, usually puberulent along upper surface.  Racemes 7-15 cm long, pedicels 2-3 mm long in anthesis, elongating up to ca. 4 mm long and recurved in fruit, bract ca. 1-2 mm long, more or less caducous, bracteoles ca. 0.2-0.3 mm long; sepals white or pink, oblong, ca. 2-3 mm long.  Fruit orange, red or purple, subglobose, ca. 4 mm in diameter.  Seed ca. 2.5-3.5 mm in diameter, puberulent"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1016-1017, 1887).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry to mesic, shaded, disturbed areas, 10-130 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1016-1017).  Shade tolerant (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "occurring near sea level along roadsides, in fields, pastures, gardens, etc., sometimes locally frequent in shady places" (Smith, 1981; pp. 261-262). In Tonga, "a weedy plant of waste areas" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 110-111). In New Caledonia, "cette espèce est souvent commune et complètement intégrée à la végétation naturelle, surtout près du littoral" (MacKee, 1994; p. 114). In Australia, "it usually grows along the edges of rainforest in clearings or other shaded places on the coastal belt" (Kleinschmidt & Johnson, 1987, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 194).

Propagation:  Seed, spread by birds.

Native range:  Tropical America, now widely naturalized in Indo-Malesia and the Pacific (Smith, 1981; pp. 261-262).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"naturalised in one or two localities". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 217 (CHR), P.S. Green 1453 (A), R.D. Hoogland 11143 (CANB)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 261-262)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 823A, DA 10275, DA 11416, Greenwood 823, DA 9780, DA 10666, DA 12169
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 33795)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 326-327)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 326-327)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 213)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25959, Florence 2775
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 326-327)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2775 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492173)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1016-1017)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1016-1017)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Meidell, J. Scott/Oppenheimer, H. L./Bartlett, R. T. (1997) (p. 17)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Meidell & Oppenheimer 112 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 28)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H50608 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110135 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1016-1017)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 286)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 114)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2421, Veillon 4160 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 114)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 884
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 114)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45876
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Souvent commune et complètement intégrée à la végétation naturelle, surtout près du littoral.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 168961)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Améré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 114)
Voucher cited: MacKee 37529
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 114)
Vouchers cited: Cribs 754, MacKee 1993, Denizot s.n., MacKee 21850, MacKee 22798, Azais in MacKee 34870, Boulet in MacKee 37463
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 596101)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 32564)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 114)
Vouchers cited: Pancher 636, Corbasson in MacKee 19462
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 134-135)
Occasional in waste places about Manila; a recent introduction which may not perisist.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 110-111)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15845
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168962)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 110-111)
"Probably on all of the islands".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 62)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 110-111)
Cited: Lister.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 600267)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Fafa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41322)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 110-111)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15093
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41178)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41192)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168963)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Velitoa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 77948)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Velitoa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 77952)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1886) (voucher ID: BISH 523783)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 406170)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Malakula (Malekula) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 628515)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Malakula (Malekula) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 30343)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivinia humilis L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Tanna Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 415778)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 194)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 194)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated, possibly escaped as a weed around houses or rubbish heaps".
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 75)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (pp. 37, 39)
On both main atoll and North Keeling Island.
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 150)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 769 (K, US), Stoddart 766 (K), Stoddart 877 (K, US), Stoddart 848 (K, US), Rhyne 775 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38074)
Taxon name on voucher: Rivina humilis L.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé/±envahissant"
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7238b (US)

Control: 

Chemical: "Sensitive to MCPA and triclopyr but re-treatment probably needed"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 DEC 2012.