Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Richardia brasiliensis
Gomes, Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Mexican clover, richardia, tropical Mexican clover, white-eye

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or short-lived perennial herbs; stems prostrate or occasionally ascending, rarely rooting at the lower nodes, 2-4 dm long, hirsute.  Leaves elliptic to ovate, 1.6-4 (-7.5) cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide, scabrous, apex acute to obtuse, base attenuate, petioles 0.1-1 cm long, stipular sheath ca. 2 mm wide, setae 1.5-5 mm long.  Flowers 20 or more in heads, involucral leaves in 1-2 pairs, sterile axillary flowers rarely also present; calyx usually 6-lobed, the lobes 1.5-3.5 mm long, glabrous or scabrous, margins ciliate; corolla white or rarely rose, funnelform, (4-) 6-lobed, the tube 3-8 mm long, the lobes 1-3 mm long, with tufts of hairs on the lobes; ovary 3-celled.  Mericarps 2-3, broadly obovoid, 2.5-3 (-4) mm long, abaxial face papillose and strigose, adaxial face with a median ridge, glabrous" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1171).

"Richardia brasiliensis has mericarps that are adaxially broadly and openly concave with a slim median keel, whereas those of Richardia scabra are adaxially closed to a narrow groove or sulcus.  These 2 species are otherwise similar in morphology"  (Lorence et al., 1995; pp. 50-51).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry to mesic, disturbed sites, 20-1,100 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1171).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Apparently native to South America" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1171).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized but rare.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1171)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1171)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1171)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./James, Shelly A./Kennedy, Barbara H. (2008) (p. 14)
West Maui. Voucher cited: H. Oppenheimer H50702 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1171)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)


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This page was created on 29 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2010.