Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Raphanus raphanistrum
L., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ye luo bo

English: jointed charlock, jointed radish, pointer charlock, runch, white charlock, wild radish

French: radis ravenelle, raifort sauvage, ravenelle, ravenelle sauvage

Japanese: hamadaikon

Spanish: citró, erviana, flor de nabo, jaramado, jaramago blanco, lobrastos, mostaza, nabo cimarron, rábano, rábano morado, rábano silvestre, rabancá, rabanilla, rabanillo blanco, rabaniza, ravenissa, taramao

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual to perennial. Taproot swollen or slender. Stems usually green, (10)-20-80-(100) cm tall. Rosette and lower stem leaves lyrate-pinnate; terminal leaflet 3-6-(10) x 3-6-(10) cm, as wide or narrower than rest of leaf; lateral leaflets in 1-8 pairs. Stem leaves simple or with 1 pair of basal lobes, orbicular to lanceolate, 1-6 cm long. Racemes 15-40-(60) cm long. Pedicels 1-2 cm long, stout at fruiting. Sepals 6-9 x 1-2 mm. Petals yellow, white, brownish, pink, or mauve, usually mauve-veined, 13-20 mm long. Silique (1)-2-8-seeded, cylindric, constricted between seeds, breaking into segments when ripe, weakly to strongly ribbed, tapering at apex, (10)-20-60-(80) x (2)-3-8-(9) mm. Seeds 1.5-3 mm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 438).

Subsp. maritimusSilique (4)-6-8 mm wide; constrictions short; segments spherical or wider than long; apical portion rarely > 2x length of top segment
Subsp. raphanistrumSilique (2)-3-4-(5) mm wide; constrictions long; segments longer than wide; apical portion (2)-3-4x length of top segment. (Webb et al., 1988; p. 438).

Habitat/ecology:  In China, "roadsides, fields, waste areas".  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall. Short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).
Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months. Precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun. Level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Macaronesia, northern Africa, Europe, western and central Asia; widely naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Andrews, S. B. (1990) (p. 22)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 10)
Vouchers cited: H. Vollrath s.n. (BISH 43292), D. Herbst 5823 (BISH), D. Herbst 9790 (BISH), T. Herat, R. Herat & P. Higashino 805 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: W. L. Wagner et al. 5371 (BISH), W. L. Wagner et al. 5372 (BISH), T. Flynn &ammp; L. Hume 1650 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 10)
East Maui. Voucher cited: O. Degener 35834 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: N.L.H. Krauss s.n. (BISH 43318)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: N. Forbes 2286.O (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 188)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 304)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Qinghai, Sichuan
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 188)
Japan
Japan
Japan   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 190)
Japan
Japan
Japan introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 188)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 438)
Subsp. raphanistrum, "waste land, roadsides, disturbed soil"; subsp. maritimus (Smith) Thell., "coastal and on roadsides, waste land"
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 190)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 190)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Raphanus raphanistrum, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 4 MAR 2007 and was last updated on 8 JAN 2011.