Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Psychotria carthagenensis
Jacq., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk (based on second screen), score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A shrub 1-2 m. high, glabrous or nearly so; stipules membranaceous, ferruginous, caducous, less than 1 cm. long, obtuse or rounded at the apex; leaves short-petiolate, commonly rather thick, lance-elliptic to oblong-obovate, broadest at or above the middle, commonly 6-12 cm. long and 3-5 cm. broad, acute or acuminate or sometimes obtuse, at the base acute to long-attenuate, glabrous beneath or rarely puberulent on the nerves, often conspicuously domatiate in the nerve axils, the lateral nerves about 10 pairs; inflorescence terminal, erect, paniculate, usually long-pedunculate, generally radiately branched from the base, with divergent branches, the branches glabrous, the bracts caducous, the flowers sessile or nearly so; calyx obsoletely denticulate; corolla white, glabrous or very minutely puberulent, 4-5 mm. long, with very short lobes; fruit red, subglobose, 4 mm. long, the nutlets costate dorsally"  (Standley & Williams, 1975; 24(11): 146-147).

"A nearly glabrous shrub 1-3 meters, high; stipules large, thin, obovate, obtuse, brownish; leaves short-petiolate, the blades lance-elliptic to oblong-obovate, broadest at or above the middle, acute or acuminate, acute to attenuate at the base, puberulent beneath along the nerves or glabrate; inflorescence pedunculate, paniculate, open, usually radiately branched at the base, many-flowered, the minute bracts deciduous; calyx obsoletely denticulate; corolla white, glabrous or minutely puberulent, 4 mm. long; fruit red, 4 mm. long"  (Macbride & Dahlgren, 1936; 13(6/1): 187).

Habitat/ecology:  In Guatemala (native): "moist or dry forest or thickets, chiefly on the Pacific coastal plain, at 400 m. or less"  (Standley & Williams, 1975; p. 146-147).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Southern Mexico to Panama, southward to Bolivia and Argentina"  (Standley & Williams, 1975; 24(11): 146-147).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 35287)
Taxon name on voucher: Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 393)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Williams, Louis O. (1975) (pp. 146-147)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
Macbride, J. Francis (1936) (p. 187)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Psychotria carthagenensis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Psychotria carthagenensis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Psychotria carthagenensis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Macbride, J. Francis. 1936. Flora of Peru. Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series, Vol. XIII. 1936-1971, 6 parts.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 0. Voucher specimen #PTBG35287(Lorence, D. 8793).

Randall, R. P. 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. CRC for Australian Weed Management, Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia. 524 pp.
Also:  Searchable online database at http://weeds.cbit.uq.edu.au/.

Standley, Paul C./Williams, Louis O. 1975. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana: Botany. Vol. 24, Part XI, Nos. 1-3. Chicago Natural History Museum. 274 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 9 OCT 2012 and was last updated on 17 OCT 2012.