Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pluchea indica
(L.) Less., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: kuo bao ju

English: Indian camphorweed, Indian fleabane, Indian pluchea

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Erect shrub, glabrous (or nearly so) throughout; leaves bright pale green, obovate or subelliptic, 3-4 (rarely 5) cm long, 1.5-2 (rarely 2.3) cm wide, nearly sessile, margins dentate, base cuneate, apex " obtuse; inflorescence compact, compound, terminal and subterminal, somewhat corymbose in appearance; heads of relatively few flowers; involucral bracts subdeltoid, in 3-4 series; heads c. 5 mm long, 2 mm broad; perfect flowers 1-3; corolla rose-purple, the 5-lobes evident, deltoid; pappus bristles mostly 18-20 per achene; mature achenes reddish-brown" (Stone, 1970; p. 589).

"Erect shrub to 2 m tall, sulcate-striate, much branched, branches finely shortly crisp-hairy, later becoming glabrate. Leaves thickly chartaceous, obovate, 2.3-8 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, minutely puberulent above, loosely puberulent to subglabrous with distinct veinlets beneath, apex acute to mucronate, margins acutely dentate, base attenuate, sessile or very shortly petiolate. Capitula narrowly cylindric to campanulate, ca. 5-6 mm (when fresh) or 9-10 mm (in dried specimens) in diam., 6-7 mm long, peduncle sessile to 10 mm long, forming dense terminal and axillary corymbs. Involucres ovate, 4-6 mm long, bracts 6-7 seriate; the outer obtuse, 2-2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, ciliolate on margins; the inner lanceolate to linear, obtuse, 4-6 mm long, 0.25-1 mm wide, entire. Receptacle densely hirsutulous. Outer florets numerous, corolla 3-5 mm long; style far exerted; pappus white, 5 mm long, slightly exceeding corolla; achenes brown, cylindric with 5-7 pale ribs, slightly curved, 1 mm long, 0.3 mm wide, subglabrous. Central florets 2-7, corolla 4.5-5.5 mm long, 5-lobed at tip, lobes glandular; anthers and style far exserted; pappus white, as long as corolla; achenes vestigial as a small cartilaginous ring"  (Peng et al., 1998).

Description from the Flora of China online.
Description from the Digital Flora of Taiwan online.

Habitat/ecology:  The problems associated with this species are similar to those associated with Pluchea carolinensis. This plant is confined to lowland habitats, particularly wetlands and fishponds (Smith, 1985; p. 199).  "Displaces forages in coastal pastures and natives in marshes and saline areas.  Destroys habitat of water birds"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"Often in brackish marshes and other saline habitats. In Taiwan, widespread all along the western coastline, commonly occurring in littoral areas such as mangroves, brackish swamp, tidal flats, etc., occasionally found in forested land at low elevations" (Peng et al., 1998).

"Readily colonises disturbed saline areas and cliffs around tropical coasts, but has also been reported inland in Hawai‘i to a height of 450 m. The plant is not particularly competitive, and appears to be readily shaded out by taller shrubs and trees." (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 58). In New Caledonia, "cette espèce, localement abondante aux envirions de Koumac, a été récoltée seulement dans une région assez limitée du Nord" (MacKee, 1994; p. 37).

Propagation:  "Distribution is by wind-dispersed seeds, which probably have a short viability" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 58).

Native range:  Native of India, south China, throughout Malaysia, south to Australia; possibly native in Guam, but weedy in appearance (Stone, 1970; p. 589).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 42704)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 43376)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132669)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 401439)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593735)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island possibly native
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 589)
Voucher cited: Stone 4033 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 132670)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 438123)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 438124)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 571336)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40023 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 10)
Occasional on the far margins of the lagoon.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Lorence et al. 7129 (AD, PTBG, SING), K.R. Wood 11545 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Banaba Island
Banaba (Ocean) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. (1962) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Hamilton 8
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 24889 [54889?] (US, HAW, K)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 31159)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 132661)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 404911)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 583372)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 583377)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (pp. 36-37)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 26523, Fosberg 31179, Fosberg 31210, Whistler 11218. Also one without collector name or number.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 26523 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132658)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132659)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 132660)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 452833)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 71)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 17429)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 17432)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132657)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 16978, MacKee 33032, MacKee 33478, MacKee 34493
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 14, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 16-17)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132664)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432378)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 259)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 31158)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 14, 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 81655)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea indica (L.) Less.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 606)
Along the seashore and tidal streams within the influence of salt or brackish water.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 60)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 351)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Guangdong, Hainan
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 286)
On sandy beach.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Okinawa
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 71)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Peng, Ching-I/Chen, Chih-Huei/Leu, Wen-Pen/Yen, Hsin-Fu (1998) (pp. 287-297)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Widespread along the western coast, commonly in littoral areas such as mangrove and brackish swamps, tidal flats, occasionally in forests at low elevations".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 58, 124)

Comments:  "Readily hybridizes with Pluchea carolinensis to form an intermediate plant known as Pluchea x fosbergii Cooperr. & Galang where the two species occur together (Whistler & Steele, 1999; pp. 36-37).

Per Bill Sykes (pers. com.), "introduced accidentally to Motu Moananui [Penrhyn Island, Cook Islands] at the time that American engineers built the airstrip in the Second World War."

Widespread but not presently abundant on Guam.

Control: 

Chemical: "Sensitive to 2,4-D and probably to all hormone-type dicot killers. HAVO staff reported control with glyphosate product at 1% in foliar applications (Zimmer, HAVO). Fern Duvall (DOFAW) cleared areas of fleabane in the Kanaha Pond Reserve with drizzle applications of 1 lb/acre of glyphosate (Rodeo®) to establish bird nesting sites"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Photos and additional information at the University of Guam "Plants of Guam" web site.

Additional online information about Pluchea indica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Pluchea indica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Pluchea indica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1970. Voucher specimen #BNM259(Salsedo, Carl A. 358).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 17429 (collector unknown; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 132660 (Fosberg, F.R. 26523).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 132661 (St.John, H. 23704).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 132657 (Fosberg, F.R. 31196).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 132658 (Fosberg, F.R. 31179).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 132659 (Fosberg, F.R. 31210).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 132664 (Fosberg, F.R. 31980).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 132669 (Fosberg, F.R. 31279).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 17432 (collector unknown 1122).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1963. Voucher specimen #BISH 132670 (Fosberg, F.R. 43411).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 452833 (unknown s.n.).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 401439 (Evans, M. 2313).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 438123 (Evans, M. 1443).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 438124 (Evans, M. 1671).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 571336 (Evans, M. 1671).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 81655 (Emmons, B. 94).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 404911 (Bryan Jr., E.H. 1668).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 583372 (Bryan Jr., E.H. 1668).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 583377 (Bryan Jr., E.H. 1682).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 432378 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3386).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 593735 (Herbst, D.R. 6813).

Ching-I Peng, ed. 2013. Digital flora of Taiwan (online resource).

Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. 1962. Plants of Christmas Island. Atoll Res. Bull. 90. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 7 pp.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1955. Northern Marshall Islands Expedition, 1951-1952. Land biota: vascular plants. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 39. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 22 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. 1994. Flora of the Phoenix Islands, central Pacific. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 393. 60 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 28 JAN 2013.