Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Piptatherum miliaceum
(L.) Coss., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Agrostis miliacea L.; Oryzopsis miliacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Asch. & Schweinf.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: rice millet, smilo, smilo grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 100-150 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 15-30 cm long; 5-10 mm wide; coriaceous; stiff. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; scaberulous; rough adaxially. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 20-40 cm long. Primary panicle branches 4-8-nate; whorled at most nodes. Panicle branches scaberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.  Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 3 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 3 mm long; 1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-veined. Upper glume apex acuminate. Florets: Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; 2.5 mm long; coriaceous; dark brown; shiny; without keel; 3-veined. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1-awned. Principal lemma awn flexuous; 3-5 mm long overall; deciduous. Palea coriaceous; 2-veined; without keels"  (GrassBase, the Online World Grass Flora).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "in waste land, pasture, and on dry banks"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 83).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, western Asia, northern Africa, Madeira and Canary Islands (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 667717)
Taxon name on voucher: Piptatherum miliaceum
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Grown to stabilize mine-dumps in moist and semi-arid regions, and frequently spread from such plantings.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 83)
Naturalised from Eurasia.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
AZ, ID, MD, NJ, NV, PA, UT


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 1 OCT 2012.