Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pinus caribaea
Morelet, Pinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia le bi song

English: Bahamas pitch pine, Caribbean pine

French: pins des Caraibes

Maori (Cook Islands): paina, paina papa‘ā

Samoan: paina, paina

Tongan: paini

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree up to 30 m tall, often free from branches to a considerable height; bark grey to reddish brown, fissured and eventually shed in large flat wide plates.  Leaves usually in 3's, rarely 4's or 5's or 2's, crowded at ends of branches, usually falling in second year, light or yellowish green, linear, rigid, apex a horny point, margin serrulate, 15-25 cm long, basal sheath persistent, light brown becoming dark brown or blackish, 1-2 cm long.  Male stroboli numerous in sessile clusters, 1-3 cm long.  Cones subterminal, reflexed, conical, 5-10 (-12) cm X 2.5-3.5 cm when closed, deciduous, scales tan or reddish brown, spreading or reflexed, swollen, ending in a minute prickle less than 1 mm long; seeds usually mottled grey or light brown, narrowly ovoid, ca 6 mm long, with a well developed usually persistent wing ca 2.5 cm long"  (Stanley & Ross, 1989; vol. 3, p. 459).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "extensively cultivated in lowland and upland dry areas and also in grassland, at elevations from near sea level to 800 m"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 115-116). In New Caledonia, "Cette espèce est devenue la seule utilisée en plantation à partir de 1975 (actuellement 6000 ha sur 8000 en reboisements territoriaux; Crémière & Ehrhart, 1990). Ils se resèment, parfois copieusement, à l'intérieur et à proximité des plantations mais ne semblent pas jusqu'à présent se répandre ailleurs" (Gagaominy et al., 1996; p. 382).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  West Indies and Central America. Commonly used in forestry projects in tropical areas.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 40)
"Nous avons observé l’unique pin des Caraïbes Pinus caribaea dans l’arboretum de Vaitea" (Meyer, 2008; p. 40).
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 115-116)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 971
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 115-116)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1094
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 115-116)
Vouchers cited: DA T.2, DF 744 (T.1), DF 746 (T.3), T.4, DA 13534, DA 16950, DA 16423
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
Dry/mesic habitats.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39710)
Taxon name on voucher: Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39630)
Taxon name on voucher: Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. hondurensis Barrett & Golfari. Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence, W.L. Wagner, S.L. Montgomery, J. Florence & S. Bishop 6266 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 13097)
Taxon name on voucher: Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41011)
Taxon name on voucher: Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. hondurensis Barrett & Golfari. Voucher cited: J. Florence 7770 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. hondurensis Barrett & Golfari. Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11419 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 82)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 97)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 19)
West Maui. Var. hondurensis; vouchers cited: Oppenheimer et al. H40008 (BISH), H. & M. Oppenheimer & F. & R. Duvall H70127 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Potential invader".
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: MacKee 16303. Var. hondurensis (Sénéclauze) Barret & Golferi; voucher cited: Casé in MacKee 43326
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: CHR 168884
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 25)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 46)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. hondurensis Barrett & Golfari. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10759 (PAP)
Naturalisée
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 99)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 74)
Cultivated or in plantations.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 74)
Cultivated or in plantations.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 62)
Cultivated or in plantations.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 55)
Cultivated or in plantations.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 68)
Cultivated or in plantations.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 39)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 70)
Cultivated only

Comments:  Reported as moderately invasive in French Polynesia (Meyer, 2000; pp. 93). Naturalized in Queensland, Australia.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 2 NOV 2011.