Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pimenta racemosa
J.W.Moore, Myrtaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Caryophyllus racemosus Mill

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bay oil tree, bay rum tree, bay tree, malagueta, West Indian bay

French: bois d'Inde, piment couronné

Tongan: sinamoni

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees 4-12 m tall; petioles 3-10 mm long; leaf blades (1.5) 4-10 (12.5) cm long, 2.5-6 cm wide, obovate to oblanceolate or elliptic, coriaceous, obtuse, acute basally, entire, finely reticulately veined, with 5-7 pairs of rather obscure, main lateral veins, shiny above, dull and pale beneath; cymes pedunculate; flowers white, ca. 10 mm wide; calyx 5-lobed; fruit ovoid, ca 7-12 mm long, black at maturity"  (Welsh, 1998; pp. 199-200).

Habitat/ecology:  Dry and moist forests and open areas, up to 3000 ft. elevation in Hawai‘i.  In Fiji, "cultivated and sometimes naturalized near sea level"  (Smith, 1985; p. 306).

Propagation:  Seed, spread by birds.

Native range:  West Indies and possibly also in northern South America, now widely cultivated.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 7076 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 382)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 7052 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 374)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 166355)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664839)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 306)
Vouchers cited: DA 17317, H.B.R. Parham 333
Sometimes naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 306)
Vouchers cited: DA 17203, 12260, DA L. 11441, DA 16076
Sometimes naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14990)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 33228)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 200)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 200)
Vouchers cited: Moore 270, Moore 783
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill. Voucher cited: J. Florence 4010 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491608)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Nengonengo Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 192)
Cultivated?
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: A. Lau 2011052601 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: MacKee 42192
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 74)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 668956)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 68)

Comments:  Naturalized on most of the southern group of the Cook Islands except Aitutaki. It is especially prevalent on Ma‘uke (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Additional information:
Additional online information about Pimenta racemosa is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Pimenta racemosa as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Pimenta racemosa may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 166355 (Wilder, G.P. 824).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 14990 (Pillay, S. 12260).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 33228 (Parham, J.W. 16076).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 668956 (Buelow, G.P. 402943).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491608 (Florence, J. 4010).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 664839 (Sykes, W.R. 466980).

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex. 2012. New plant records for the Hawaiian Islands 2010-2011. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 113:27-54.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG374(Tim Flynn 7052).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG382(Tim Flynn 7076).

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers No. 65. 35 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 AUG 2011.