Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pimenta racemosa
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Myrtaceae


High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment). Caryophyllus racemosus Mill

English: bay oil tree, bay rum tree, bay tree, malagueta, West Indian bay

French: bois d'Inde, piment couronné

Tongan: sinamoni

"Trees 4-12 m tall; petioles 3-10 mm long; leaf blades (1.5) 4-10 (12.5) cm long, 2.5-6 cm wide, obovate to oblanceolate or elliptic, coriaceous, obtuse, acute basally, entire, finely reticulately veined, with 5-7 pairs of rather obscure, main lateral veins, shiny above, dull and pale beneath; cymes pedunculate; flowers white, ca. 10 mm wide; calyx 5-lobed; fruit ovoid, ca 7-12 mm long, black at maturity"  (Welsh, 1998; pp. 199-200). Dry and moist forests and open areas, up to 3000 ft. elevation in Hawai‘i.  In Fiji, "cultivated and sometimes naturalized near sea level"  (Smith, 1985; p. 306). Seed, spread by birds. West Indies and possibly also in northern South America, now widely cultivated.
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 7076 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 382)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 7052 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 374)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 166355)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664839)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 306)
Vouchers cited: DA 17317, H.B.R. Parham 333
Sometimes naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 306)
Vouchers cited: DA 17203, 12260, DA L. 11441, DA 16076
Sometimes naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14990)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 33228)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 200)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 200)
Vouchers cited: Moore 270, Moore 783
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill. Voucher cited: J. Florence 4010 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491608)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Nengonengo Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 192)
Cultivated?
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: A. Lau 2011052601 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: MacKee 42192
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 74)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 668956)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta racemosa J.W.Moore
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 68)
Naturalized on most of the southern group of the Cook Islands except Aitutaki. It is especially prevalent on Ma‘uke (Space & Flynn, 2002).


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