Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phyllostachys bissetii
McClure, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: rong cheng zhu

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Culms 5-6 m, ca. 2 cm in diameter; internodes initially purple-green, becoming green or gray-green, to 25 cm, white powdery, glabrous or basal internodes slightly scabrous with minute, erect hairs on distal parts; wall ca. 4 mm thick; nodal ridge slightly more prominent than sheath scar. Culm sheaths deep to pale green, weakly tinged with purple, unmarked or more usually with distal milky-white stripes and extremely minute brown spots, white powdery, those from basal nodes sometimes pubescent; auricles usually present, green or purple-green, small or large and falcate; oral setae sometimes absent; ligule purple, arcuate or truncate, 1-2 mm, ciliate; blade erect, deep green or tinged with purple, narrowly triangular to triangular-lanceolate, flat or wavy. Leaves usually 2 per ultimate branch; auricles and oral setae usually present initially, deciduous; ligule moderately exserted; blade 7-11 x 1.2-1.6 cm. Inflorescence not known"  (Flora of China online).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Woodland, Sunny Edge, Dappled Shade, Shady Edge. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure" (Plants for a Future).

Propagation:  Rhizomes, discarded cuttings.

Native range:  China (Zhejaing and Sichuan Provinces) (Dajun & Shao-Jin, 1987; p. 63).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Voucher: Flynn 7029 (PTBG, BISH, K)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 399)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllostachys
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated: Sichuan, Zhejiang.

Comments:  A very aggressive running bamboo that has already spread widely on Mangaia, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002; p. 8).

Control: 

Chemical: Probably similar to control for P. nigra: "Plant is sensitive to hexazinone and imazapyr and moderately sensitive to glyphosate. Foliar application difficult on tall plants. Most effective treatment requires mechanical clearing followed by herbicide treatment of re-sprouts. J. De Frank (Univ. Hawaii) recommended glyphosate plus fluazifop or imazapyr. Basal stem application of imazapyr looks promising" (Motooka et al., 2002).

Additional information:
Additional information at the Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, web site of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council.
Information from the publication "Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control".

Additional online information about Phyllostachys bissetii is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Phyllostachys bissetii as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Phyllostachys bissetii may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. 93 p.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG399(Tim Flynn 7029).

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wang Dajun/Shen Shao-Jin. 1987. Bamboos of China. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 15 MAR 2012.