Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Phyllanthus urinaria
L., Phyllanthaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ye xia zhu

English: chamber bitter, shatterstone

Fijian: kai moku, se mbulumbulu, tho mokumoku

Kwara‘ae: mala, mala o‘a

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Glabrous erect herb, often reddish, to 30 cm tall, few-branched; leaves borne on slightly flattened branchlets, these about 10 cm long; leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, 7-18 mm long, 3-7 mm wide, rounded mucronate, obliquely rounded at base, subsessile, margins minutely scabrous, pale beneath; flowers subsessile, about 4 mm wide, sepals 6, oblong, stamens 3, anthers transversely opening, filaments connate; capsules depressed-globose, about 2.5 mm wide, pendulous, transversely rugose-echinate; styles free, minute, bifid; seeds transversely rugulose, 2.5 mm broad"  (Stone, 1970; p. 388).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, found from near sea level to an elevation of 1,127 m as a weed in villages, gardens, and waste places, and also naturalized along forest trails and on cleared ridges and summits" (Smith, 1981; pp. 484-485).  "Common in lawns and other disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 19).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Indigenous in tropical eastern Asia and now a pantropical weed" (Smith, 1981; pp. 484-485). Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 144) list as native to Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3337
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9121)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Marshall 85 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5753 (BISH, BRI)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 22)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27772)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Hosokawa 6076
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58450 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58568 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46663 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 464-465)
Voucher cited: Smith 7471
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 464-465)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 705, DA 9622
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 464-465)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 789A, Tothill 734, Smith 4851, DA 2430, Smith 5824, DA 467, Weiner 236, DA 9582, DA 3978, DA 9385, DA 11220, DA 9969
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7336 (PAP), D.H. Lorence , L. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 9039 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9466 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8824)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39338)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 6308
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11528 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Florence 2504, BRY 26414
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3395 (PAP), J. Florence & P. Birnbaum 9940 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10480 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 31410)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4509, Birnbaum 109, Florence 2504
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2504 (PAP), J. Florence 2632 (PAP), J. Florence 3175 (PAP), J. Florence 8041 (PAP), J. Florence 8117 (PAP), J. Florence & J.-C. Jolinon 8091 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5960 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 388)
Voucher cited: G.E.S. 108
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: Deplanche s.n., Däniker 2279 (Z), Schmid 1017
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2101 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 295)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 41)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 102)
Common.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 396)
A weed in open waste places at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 19)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 99)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 186)
On grassland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 69)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 27)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37916)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 13)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 25)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2714

Additional information:
Additional online information about Phyllanthus urinaria is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Phyllanthus urinaria as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Phyllanthus urinaria may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Florence, J. 1997. Flore de la Polynésie française, Vol. 1. Paris. Editions de l'Orstom, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 34. 393 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. 1969. A collection of plants from Fais, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 133. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. 1975. The natural history of Namoluk Atoll, eastern Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 189. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 53 pp + photos.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1990. Voucher specimen #PTBG31410(Jacques Florence 10480).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG37916(Art Whistler 9811).

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. 1979. The terrestrial vegetation of an Indian Ocean coral islands: Wilingili, Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands. I. Transect analysis of the vegetation. II. A limited quantitative analysis of the vegetation distribution. Atoll Research Bulletin 231. The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 25 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Tassin, Jacques. 2005. Jacques Tassin (IAC-CIRAD), personal communication.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1990. The weeds of Manu‘a [unpublished checklist]. 18 pp.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 6 MAR 2010.