Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phyllanthus urinaria
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Phyllanthaceae


Reject, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Chinese: ye xia zhu

English: chamber bitter, shatterstone

Fijian: kai moku, se mbulumbulu, tho mokumoku

Kwara‘ae: mala, mala o‘a

"Glabrous erect herb, often reddish, to 30 cm tall, few-branched; leaves borne on slightly flattened branchlets, these about 10 cm long; leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, 7-18 mm long, 3-7 mm wide, rounded mucronate, obliquely rounded at base, subsessile, margins minutely scabrous, pale beneath; flowers subsessile, about 4 mm wide, sepals 6, oblong, stamens 3, anthers transversely opening, filaments connate; capsules depressed-globose, about 2.5 mm wide, pendulous, transversely rugose-echinate; styles free, minute, bifid; seeds transversely rugulose, 2.5 mm broad"  (Stone, 1970; p. 388). In Fiji, found from near sea level to an elevation of 1,127 m as a weed in villages, gardens, and waste places, and also naturalized along forest trails and on cleared ridges and summits" (Smith, 1981; pp. 484-485).  "Common in lawns and other disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 19). Seed "Indigenous in tropical eastern Asia and now a pantropical weed" (Smith, 1981; pp. 484-485). Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 144) list as native to Micronesia.
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3337
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9121)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Marshall 85 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5753 (BISH, BRI)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 22)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27772)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Hosokawa 6076
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58450 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58568 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46663 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 464-465)
Voucher cited: Smith 7471
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 464-465)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 705, DA 9622
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 464-465)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 789A, Tothill 734, Smith 4851, DA 2430, Smith 5824, DA 467, Weiner 236, DA 9582, DA 3978, DA 9385, DA 11220, DA 9969
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7336 (PAP), D.H. Lorence , L. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 9039 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9466 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8824)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39338)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 6308
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11528 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Florence 2504, BRY 26414
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3395 (PAP), J. Florence & P. Birnbaum 9940 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10480 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 31410)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4509, Birnbaum 109, Florence 2504
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2504 (PAP), J. Florence 2632 (PAP), J. Florence 3175 (PAP), J. Florence 8041 (PAP), J. Florence 8117 (PAP), J. Florence & J.-C. Jolinon 8091 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 131)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5960 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 388)
Voucher cited: G.E.S. 108
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: Deplanche s.n., Däniker 2279 (Z), Schmid 1017
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2101 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 295)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 41)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 102)
Common.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 396)
A weed in open waste places at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 19)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 99)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 186)
On grassland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 69)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 27)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37916)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 13)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 25)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 277)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2714


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