Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phyllanthus debilis
Klein ex Willd., Phyllanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: maigo-lalo

English: niruri

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Monoecious, erect annual herbs 0.1-0.8 m tall; stems often branching with age, branching phyllanthoid, the branches 4-10 (-12) cm long, usually with 15-35 leaves.  Leaves narrowly elliptic, (6-) 8-21 mm long, 2.5-5 mm wide, petioles 0.3-1 mm long, stipules lanceolate, 0.9-1.2 mm long.  Staminate flowers 3-4 in racemose cymes arising in the first 2-4 nodes of the branches, pedicels less than 0.5 mm long, calyx 6-lobed, 0.5-0.6 mm long, nectary disk 6-lobed, stamens 3, filaments connate; pistillate flowers solitary in the nodes above staminate flowers, pedicels becoming 1.1-1.6 mm long, calyx lobes 6, (1-) 1.2-1.5 mm long, margins whitish and scarious, nectary disk shallowly 6-lobed, styles distinct, bifid.  Capsules depressed-globose, ca. 2-2.2 mm in diameter, the surface smooth, explosively dehiscent.  Seeds pale yellowish brown, angled, ca. 1-1.1 mm long, with 6-7 longitudinal ribs and fine transverse striations on back"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 627).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, disturbed areas such as yards and other urban sites, also in open areas such as lava fields" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 627).  In Fiji, "occurring from near sea level to about 450 m as a naturalized weed near habitations" (Smith, 1981; pp. 465-466).  "Occasional in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 19).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Probably native to southern India and Sri Lanka" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 627).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 43)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 43)
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 22)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 121-122)
Voucher cited: C.Y.C. Wong 49a (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 465-466)
Voucher cited: Milne 124
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 465-466)
Voucher cited: Horne 360
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 465-466)
Vouchers cited: Degener & Ordonez 13689, Gibbs 689, Greenwood 789, DA 7165
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 112)
Voucher cited: Florence 5372
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 123)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 386-387)
Presence not confirmed.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 627)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 627)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40117 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 627)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110142 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 627)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 143)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 19)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 69)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 24)
"Common in weedy places". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36856 (US)

Comments:  Similar to P. amarus.


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 21 OCT 2006.