Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phyla nodiflora
(L.) Greene, Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk (based on second screen), score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx.; Lippia repens Spreng.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: guo jiang teng

English: capeweed, false thyme, fogfruit, frogfruit, mat grass, mat lippia, phyla, turkey tangle

Spanish: cidrón, pastor, turre hembra

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herb, prostrate, creeping, rooting at the nodes.  Leaves simple, opposite or in whorls, blade obovate to oblanceolate, usually 1-4 cm long with the margins of the upper half toothed.  Flowers anytime during the year; flowers many, borne in long-stalked, axillary, subglobose to ovoid head 5-25 mm long.  Corolla with fused petals, salverform, tube about 2 mm long, limb about 2 mm across with four spreading, rounded lobes, white to pink with a yellow or red throat.  Fruit a capsule 1.5-2 mm long, breaking into two segments"  (Whistler, 2000; pp. 359-360).

"Creeping herb, rooting at the nodes, with angled stems; leaves obovate, distally serrate, usually 1-4 cm long, and 0.5-2 cm wide, base decurrent; petiole to about 5-6 mm; peduncle of spike 1-5 (rarely 6-8) cm long; bracts obovate; calyx 1.5 mm; corolla 2 mm long, white or pale violet; fruit about 1.8 mm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 506).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is a fast spreading weed that has a competitive advantage in frequently mowed lawns because of its creeping habit, and can crowd out other low-growing native species" (Whistler & Steele, 1999; p. 71-72).  In Guam, occasional in lawns or waste ground in wet places (Stone, 1970; p. 506). In New Caledonia, "espèce américaine d'introduction ancienne dans le Pacifique Sud-Ouest" (MacKee, 1994; p. 139).

Propagation:  Seed, rooting from nodes.

Native range:  Tropical America

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 59)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 59)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. reptans
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. reptans
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. reptans
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 506)
Voucher cited: Stone 3906 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 26)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 000611-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Kennedy, Barbara H./James, Shelley A./Imada, Clyde T. (2010) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: H. Oppenheimer H70121 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Kennedy, Barbara H./James, Shelley A./Imada, Clyde T. (2010) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: L.M. Crago & C. McGuire 2005-235 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (pp. 71-72)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 12)
"Occasional; patches in some grassy areas".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (pp. 71-72)
Vouchers cited: Herbst 8900, Herbst 8974, Herbst 9627, Herbst 9631, Whistler 11167, Whistler 11265
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 44985)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyla nodiflora
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 47462)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyla nodiflora
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 13)
"Uncommon; small areas in a few lawns".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0627200904
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49756)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyla nodiflora
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 132)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A23)
Uncommon; small area near house part way down runway, other area near the south, Mili.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Vouchers cited: Cheesman 3324 (BM), MacKee 28287
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: MacKee 25462
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n. s.loc., Balansa 521, Grunow s.n. (W), MacKee 4088, Morat 5375
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Vouchers cited: Germain s.n., Virot 953
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Voucher: Lorence 9736 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 28)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Voucher: Lorence 9746 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 38)
Taxon name on voucher: Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Ireland Island   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 473, 475)
Observed only on the east coast of New Ireland, but there common.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 99)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Starr & Martz 990512-2 (BISH). D. Herbst &ammp; W. Takeuchi 6364 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 231)
On grassland or along streams.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1275)
Cultivation escape.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 69)
Weed of uncertain origin
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Timor-Leste
Timor-Leste
East Timor Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 30)
As Lippia nodiflora L.
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38063)
Taxon name on voucher: Lippia nodiflora (L.) Rich.
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 139)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 183)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2870 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 156)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3075 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 24)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 1003 (EA), Stoddart 7159 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 195)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 164)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3001 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2378 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 15 MAR 2007.