Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phalaris amethystina
Trin., Poaceae
No images for this taxon


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual; caespitose. Culms 30-60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 8-15 cm long; 2-7 mm wide. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; 1.5-4.5 cm long; 1-1.4 cm wide. Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 4.7-6.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 4.7-6.2 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged narrowly; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Lower glume apex acute, or acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 4.7-6.2 mm long; 1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate. Florets: Basal sterile florets similar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 1.5-1.9 mm long; 0.5 length of fertile lemma; glabrous. Fertile lemma elliptic; laterally compressed; 3.2-4.2 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent; hairy all along. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous; 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on back. Flower: Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2.1-2.2 mm long. Hilum linear"  (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Chile (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 9 APR 2011.