Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Persicaria capitata
(Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Masamune, Polygonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Polygonum capitatum Buch.-ham. ex D. Don

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: tou hua liao

English: pinkhead knotweed, pinkhead smartweed

French: couvre-sol, herbe corail

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Mat-forming perennial herbs from a stout woody root; stems prostrate, sometimes rooting at the nodes, 0.5-3.5 dm long, many-branched.  Leaves with a conspicuous purple V-shaped band, occasionally also tinged red or purple, elliptic-ovate to elliptic, 1-4 (-6.2) cm long, 0.6-2.5 (-3.3) cm wide, both surfaces sparsely strigillose, margins glandular ciliate, petioles 1-4 mm long, glandular villous, usually with an auricle that clasps the stem, ocreae reddish brown, tubular, to 6-10 mm long, glandular hirsute, apex glandular ciliate.  Flowers in subglobose or capitate spikes, these 1 to several at the ends of the branches, peduncles with purple glandular hairs; tepals pink, 2-2.5 mm long.  Nuts dark reddish brown, trigonous, ca. 2 mm long, apex beaked, the surface somewhat striate, glossy"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1063).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in wet forest, open lava fields, and along roadsides, 600-1,770 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1063).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Himalayas and western China, widely cultivated (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1063).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 23180)
Taxon name on voucher: Persicaria capitata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1060, 1063, 1888)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1060, 1063, 1888)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 11)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70069 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1060, 1063, 1888)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: OED 200807180 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 82)
Cultivated in gardens.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 972)
"Cultivation escape, steep banks, crevices of walls and amongst rocks near habitations, also less modified habitats such as coastal cliffs".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 68)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/envahissant"


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This page was created on 30 DEC 2003 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.