Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Peperomia pellucida
(L.) Kunth, Piperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: podpod-lahe, potpopot

Chinese: cao hu jiao

Chuukese: pukuson

English: peperomia, pepper elder, rat's ear, shiny bush, silverbush

Palauan: rtertiil

Pohnpeian: sekewenleng

Samoan: vao vai, vao vai

Sonsorol: rum

Spanish: alumbre, coclaria, frescura, garrapatilla, parietaria, plataria, siempreviva

Yapese: makel ni pan, opul kongkong

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herbs with fibrous roots; stems translucent pale green, erect or ascending, usually 15-45 cm long, internodes usually 3-8 cm long, glabrous.  Leaves medium green on upper surface, lower surface whitish green, thinly fleshy, drying papery, broadly ovate, 1.5-4 (-5) cm long, 1-3.3 cm wide, palmately 3-nerved or 5-nerved, glabrous, apex acuminate, base subcordate to truncate, petioles 0.5-2 (-3) cm long, glabrous. Spikes 1 to several, terminal and axillary or leaf-opposed, filiform, ca. 3-6 cm long, the rachis ca. 0.4-0.6 mm in diameter, glabrous, flowers well-spaced, peduncles ca. 0.6-1 cm long, glabrous; ovary ovoid; stigmas terminal.  Fruit subglobose, ca. 0.5 mm long, longitudinally ridged, apex beaked"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1034).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "occasionally cultivated and sparingly naturalized" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1034).  In Fiji, "occurring at elevations of sea level to about 400 m as a weed along roadsides, in plantations, on damp ground in shady places near houses, and occasionally along forest trails" (Smith, 1981; p. 89).  In Samoa, "occasional in croplands and waste places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 33). In New Guinea, "a weed of gardens, nurseries and plantations, in damp shady conditions; only troublesome where large weeds have been eliminated, leaving bare ground. From sea level to 700 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 133).  In China, "wet places within forests, rock crevices, bases of cliffs, sometimes a weed of cultivation; near sea level to 200 m"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical America, but now widely cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1034).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Manu‘a Islands introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 18)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35340)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 52)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 2)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 22)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 24269)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24885)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2584 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 96 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 8 (BISH, NY, PTBG), A. Dores 120 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 34 (BISH, NY, PTBG), T.W. Flynn 6220 (BISH, NY, PTBG, US), R. Gallen 111 (NY, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2584 (BISH), P. Raynor 17 (NY), F. Sohl 20 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24605)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 34923)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 39145)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43623)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 46221)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 46338)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 47516)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Eauripik Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 89-90)
Voucher cited: DA 8883
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 89-90)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 562
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 89-90)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 562A, Parks 20301, Meebold 16869, Degener & Ordonez 13670, DA 11054, DA 11228, DA 12222
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39364)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 216)
Voucher cited: BRY 26502
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 216)
Vouchers cited: Florence 2684, Sachet & Maclet 1041, BRY 26328
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 185-186)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38213)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 185-186)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 244)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1034)
Voucher cited: Degener & Wiebke 2685 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 115)
Rare, possibly extirpated.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 181)
Weed of pot plants. Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 7 (SUVA)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 45)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3177)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 982)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Voucher: Lorence 9797 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 90)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9563)
Taxon name on voucher: Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 47-48)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 123)
Common in damp, shady places; in vegetable gardens, under outer steps of verandahs.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 53)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 133)
From sea level to 700 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 272)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 20)
Common in the rainy season on and about damp walls in towns and now widely distributed.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 98)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 37)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 187)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 187)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 272)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 48)
In wet places and on walls.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 272)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 89)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 68)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 272)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 33)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 57)
Vouchers cited: Jeffrey 1174, Todd 51


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 8 DEC 2010.