Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Passiflora suberosa
L., Passifloraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xi zhu xi fan lian

English: corky passionflower, corkystem passionflower, devil's pumpkin, indigo berry, wild passionfruit

French: grain d'encre, grenadille, liane poc-poc, passiflore

Hawaiian: huehue haole

Spanish: uvilla

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Perennial tendrillous vine; glabrous; stems commonly purplish; leaves 3-lobed or entire, 4-8 cm long, if lobed the central lobe largest, acute; petiole 1-2.5 cm long, with 2 opposed glands; flowers solitary in axils; sepals yellow-green; inner coronal fringe purple; petals absent; flower 18-25 mm broad; pedicel 1.5-2.5 cm long; fruit subglobose, purple, nearly 1 cm think; seeds wrinkled, 3-4 mm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 431).

Habitat/ecology:  An aggressive weed. It does best in the subcanopy layers where it smothers shrubs, small trees and the ground layer. In some areas it also smothers the upper canopy layer (C.W. Smith, 1985; p. 197). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in grassland, shrubland, open dry forest, and diverse mesic forest, and on exposed ridges, 0-610 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1014); "smothers tall trees in mesic forests"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In New Caledonia, "d'introduction paraît-il relativement récente; devenu très répandu et parfois abondant dans la végétation secondaire" (MacKee, 1994; p. 113). In the Galápagos Islands, "among shrubs and rocks, mostly in shady areas, from near sea level to about 615 m" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 723-724).

Propagation:  The fruits have many seeds that are dispersed by frugivorous birds.

Native range:  Tropical America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 401468)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 401474)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 567844)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 48)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 666-667)
Voucher cited: Smith 7923
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168905)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 666-667)
Vouchers cited: Smith 8087, Smith 7288, Greenwood 730
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 168904)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168906)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168907)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 666-667)
Voucher cited: DA 10518
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 666-667)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 730B, DA 7936, DA 11222, DA 3810, DA 11536, DA 3779
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 14698)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 666-667)
Voucher cited: Tothill 187
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   University of California (2006)
"Found at higher elevations in moist habitats".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 213)
Vouchers cited: Florence 9735, Fosberg & Stone 61326, Fosberg 62924, Fosberg 61056, BRY 26026
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2275 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg & B.C. Stone 61320 (PAP)
Adventice, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491679)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601519)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607245)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38217)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 431)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4235 (GUAM), Stone 4754 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 23007)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 168868)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 168869)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 401471)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649477)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 698953)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000208)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1014)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 43)
Vouchers cited: L. Hume 304 (PTBG), T. Flynn et al. 3173 (PTBG)
Naturalized in secondary forest.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Hobdy 3293 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1014)
West Maui.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 38)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 040116-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1014)
Voucher cited: Forbes 2363.0 (BISH)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Vouchers cited: Cheesman 3319, MacKee 28262
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 168903)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Voucher cited: Blanchon 1489
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45852
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Vouchers cited: Hmakone & Sam in MacKee 25879, Benoit in MacKee 34397
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Dry forests"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Devenue très répandue et parfois abondante dans les formations secondaires.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Améré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Voucher cited: MacKee 37535
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Vouchers cited: Franc 1364, Däniker 2, MacKee 1974, Suprin 466 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 10855)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 13830, MacKee 5031
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1989) (voucher ID: BISH 634797)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 97)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 62)
Voucher: Flynn 6904 (PTBG)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 226)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 523787)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 524026)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 406121)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 421399)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 269-270)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 6)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Escaped weed, S. Yunnan (Xishuangbanna).
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 104)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 67)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Escaped weed.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 269-270)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 155)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 768 (K), Stoddart 765 (K), Stoddart 868 (K, US), Stoddart 881 (K), Rhyne 439a (US)?, Stoddart 847 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38077)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora suberosa L.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 12)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 269-270)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 131)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 7231 (US), Stoddart 7263 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 182)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2831 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 152)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3090 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52169 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 962 (EA), Stoddart 7216 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Desnoeufs Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 209)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 193)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 162)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3042 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 172)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2381 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
St. Joseph Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 46)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 968 (EA), Gwynne & Wood 984 (EA), Gwynne & Wood 1058 (EA), Stoddart 7144 (US)

Comments:  Introduced to Guam sometime after 1945, recorded from Fiji in 1942 (Stone, 1970; p. 431). Locally a problem in Guam and Saipan; more common as an invasive on Tinian.

Control: 

Chemical: "Probably sensitive to hormone type herbicides but may require basal treatments to protect host plants. Young plants susceptible to drizzle applications of glyphosate at 1 lb/acre"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 MAY 2011.