Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Paspalum urvillei
Steud., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: si mao que bai

English: Vasey grass

French: herbe cheval, herbe de Vasey, paspalum d'Urville, paspalum géant

Maori (Cook Islands): tinikarāti

Spanish: hierba de Vasey, paja boba, paja mansa, pasto macho

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Densely tufted robust perennial [grass]; culms 1-2 m tall, erect, glabrous, basally thickened; sheaths carinate upwards, lower ones pubescent, purplish; upper ones glabrous, green, 8-27 cm long; ligule very conspicuous (3-) 5-8 (-12) mm long, membranous; blades linear, acute, 12-55 cm long, 4-15 mm wide, flat, hairy at base; panicles 10-40 cm long, of 6-25 crowded racemes, these erect or ascending, 5-13 cm long, apical ones shorter than basal ones; spikelets paired, on rachises about 0.8 mm wide, elliptic ovate, broad, subacute, 2-3 mm long; glume and sterile lemma subequal, slightly apiculate, thin, ovate, 3-nerved, green to greenish-purple, pilose-ciliate; fertile lemma 1.6 mm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 217).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  A weed of disturbed areas.  Grows up to 1000 m in elevation in New Caledonia.  In Hawai‘i, grows in dense stands in mesic areas along forest roads, trails and open disturbed areas at low to mid-elevations, where it displaces native vegetation (Motooka et al., 2003); "naturalized along ditches and roadsides and in fields, pastures, and other disturbed, usually mesic areas, 20-1,280 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1577). In New Caledonia, "maintenant largement répandu, notamment en bords de pistes forestières (même en terrain serpentineux) où il atteint 1000 m d'altitude" (MacKee, 1994; p. 61).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical America but widely introduced in tropical countries.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 47)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9101)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum urvillei
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83841)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum urvillei Steud.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 26893)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum urvillei Steud.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31623)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum urvillei Steud.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31624)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum urvillei Steud.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 126260)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum urvillei Steud.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 217)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1577)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1577)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1577)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1577)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1577)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1577)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Up to 1000 m elev."
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue, notamment au bord des pistes forestières (même en terrain serpentineux), atteint 1000 m d'altitude.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Barrau in Baumann 7381
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 569)
"Usually roadsides, sometimes in large patches; also waste land, manuka scrub".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 452)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 107)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 107)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 107)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 342-343)
In wasteland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 107)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 107)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 569)
"Usually roadsides, sometimes in large patches; also waste land, manuka scrub".
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 269)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   McIntyre, Guy (1991) (p. 109)

Comments:  A problem species in Hawai‘i.

Control: 

Chemical: "Sensitive to glyphosate and imazapyr. On Kaua‘i, drizzle applications of glyphosate at 0.5 lb/acre suppressed vasey grass on Nu‘alolo Crossover Trail for 6 months. On the Alaka‘i Swamp Trail suppression by the same method was excellent and follow-up treatments required very little glyphosate at 6 and 12 months after treatment" (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 MAR 2010.