Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Paspalum paniculatum
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Poaceae


Reject, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Chinese: kai sui que bai

English: angel grass, galmarra grass, Russell river grass

Fijian: covatu

French: herbe de la mission, herbe duvet

Maori (Cook Islands): matie manutai, mauku, taravao ‘uru‘uru

Spanish: arrocillo

Tahitian: ‘ofe‘ofe

"Perennial grassCulms erect to ascending, 50-100 cm long, sometimes rooting from the lower node, nodes often long-hairy.  Leaf sheath long-hairy, striate, often longer than internodes; ligule less than 1 mm long, membranous.  Leaf blade 1040 x 0.8-2 cm; surfaces hairy, with a tuft of long white hairs at the base, midrib prominent beneath; margins scabrous.  Inflorescence of 15-20 spreading to drooping racemes from an axis 10-20 cm long, the lower racemes up to 8 cm long. Spikelets nearly round, ca. 1.5 mm long, brown, crowded together in pairs on the slender, winged rachis, which often bears scattered stiff hairs.  Lower glume absent, upper glume and sterile lemma similar, slightly pubescent"  (Whistler, 1995; p. 178).

Description from GrassBase. "Occasional to locally abundant on fallow land, on roadsides, and in crops such as taro" (Whistler, 1983; p. 93). "In moist open ground and on brushy slopes, often a weed in cultivated ground and along roadsides" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 872-873). Moist disturbed areas up to 900 m elevation.

In Fiji, naturalized "in waste places, pastures, along roadsides, on hillsides, and on plantations and other cultivated areas"  (Smith, 1979; p. 335). In New Caledonia, "introduit comme plante fourragère. Se rencontre maintenant surtout spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 61). Seed Tropical America.
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 83-84)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Falanruw 6694 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 83-84)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Falanruw 6909 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 83-84)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Falanruw 6785 (US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 352)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420148)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 666203)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666501)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 59-60)
Voucher cited: T.W. Flynn 6226 (K, PTBG, US)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24408)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 335)
Vouchers cited: DA 8312, Smith 9675, DA 8980, DA 7319, DA 8968, DA 8694, DA 9401, DA 7034, DA 7760, DA 7775, DA 1327, DA 7685, DA 7705, DA 7732, C.R. Turbet 13, DA 9058, DA 8593
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 31618)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31740)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 126259)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 448503)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence 6216 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000695)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6453)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood & S.P. Perlman 4349 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 21724)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4181 (PAP), B. Toutain 4241 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558045)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39479)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39773)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 342)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 61190
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11643 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643298)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Raynal 17862, Fosberg 64845 (US), Morris 27 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 342)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63637
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2087 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 492116)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 586743)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 342)
Voucher cited: BRY 26067
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3510 (PAP), J. Florence 3685 (PAP), P. Morat 6937 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492080)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 104)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 342)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4572, Parks & Setchell 370
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 12 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1913) (voucher ID: BISH 638332)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9027 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 560426)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5625 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6533 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5519 (PAP), J. Florence 5952 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 83-84)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 59641 (US, BISH, POM, NY), Stone 4853 (GUAM), P. H. Moore 808 (US, GUAM), Fosberg 58188 (US, BISH, POM, K)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 588376)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 589054)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000140)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 22351)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1575, 1911)
Adventive.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: Cuddihy & Davis 527 (BISH), Nagata 4432 (BISH)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 16)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer, P. Bily & F. Duvall H50222 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 29)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100509 (BISH, PTBG). This specimen is likely Paspalum laxum Lam. per Snow and Lau, 2010; p. 53.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1575)
Adventive
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Ripperton & Lyman s.n. (BISH 448985)
Naturalized
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 61)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 61)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Le Rat 2186
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 10878)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126261)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Voucher: Lorence 9735 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 27)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Voucher: Lorence 9709 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 2)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 146)
Throughout lowland New Guinea and to at least 3000 ft., as a weed of roadsides, wasteland, abandoned gardens, and cultivation.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Voucher: Flynn 6932 (PTBG, K, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 126233)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418221)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 699852)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 327)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum paniculatum
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 97)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Buelow 1662
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 55)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 268)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist places along roadsides, naturalized.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island probably native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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