Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Panicum miliaceum
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji

English: blackseeded proso millet, broomcorn millet, broomcorn panic, hog millet, millet panic, panic millet, proso, proso millet, wild millet, wild proso millet

French: millet commun, millet rond, panic faux millet, panic millet

Spanish: borona, mejo panizo, mijo, mijo mayor

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Cespitose annuals usually 20-100 cm tall, hispid.  Ligule a ciliate membrane, 1.4-2.5 mm long; blades 10-30 cm long, 0.6-2 cm wide, flat, usually hispid.  Panicles 5-30 cm long; spikelets 4-5.5 mm long, ovoid, acuminate, glabrous; first glume 2-4 mm long, 1/2 - 3/4 as long as spikelet, 5-9-nerved, second glume 13-15-nerved; first floret sterile, first lemma 11-13-nerved, first palea hyaline, up to 1.5 mm long; second floret 2.8-3.2 mm long, obtuse, glossy, smooth; anthers 1.8-2 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1570).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "probably an uncommon escape from animal feed, now naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1570).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Native to Asia and occasionally cultivated for its grain"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1570).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1570)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (1997) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Flynn 5989 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1570)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1570)
Voucher cited: Barnum 54 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: MacKee 17846
Spontané
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 84)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 263)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 561)
"Waste places, gardens. Often occurring as a result of seed spillages and the disposal of cage-bird seed".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 12)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Panicum miliaceum is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Panicum miliaceum as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Panicum miliaceum may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 1997. New naturalized plant records for Kaua‘i. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 49:9-13.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 5 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.