Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Panicum maximum
Jacq., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Panicum maximum: High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)
Panicum maximum: Reject, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment)
Panicum maximum var. trichoglume: Reject, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B. K. Simon & S. W. L. Jacobs; Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. Webster

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da shu

Chuukese: paki ngeni

English: buffalograss, green panicgrass, Guinea grass

French: capime guiné, fataque, herbe de Guinée, panic élevé

Mangarevan: tine

Maori (Cook Islands): tine, tinikarāti, tinikarati, tinikarati, tinikarāti

Spanish: cauca, gamelote, grama castilla, guina, mijo de Guinea, o privilegio, pasto Guinea, pasto sabolla, saboya, zacate Guinea, zacate privilegio, zaina

Tongan: saafa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Large tufted perennial [grass], up to 3-4 m tall, culms mostly erect, often robust, glabrous to pubescent; leaves glabrous or coarsely pubescent; ligule short, hairy; blades linear, 15-100 cm long, up to 1.5-3.5 cm wide, margins scabridulous, erect large panicles 15-60 cm long and to 25 cm wide, richly branched, the branches elongate; spikelets clustered, shortly pedicellate, oblong, rather blunt, plump, 2.5-4 mm long, green or purplish, glabrous; first glume broad, obtuse, less than 1/3 as long as the second glume, 5-nerved; second glume equaling the spikelet; lower lemma enclosing a male floret, 5-7-nerved; upper lemma oblong, with minute transverse wrinkles" (Stone, 1970; pp. 214-215). "This species is distinguished by its hairy nodes, hair-fringed ligules, loose spreading panicle, and transversely wrinkled upper lemma"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 348).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "This coarse, perennial grass reaches heights of more than 2 m. It has a strong allelopathic activity (Chou and Young, 1975).  It grows in dry areas between sea level and 1,200 m" (Smith, 1985; p. 196).  "It occurs in areas receiving 1,000 to 1,700 mm of rainfall and having a dry season not exceeding 4 months.  It grows on a wide variety of well-drained soils, and, although it is drought-resistant, will not withstand long periods of severe desiccation.  Some strains prefer wet situations.  The species can stand waterlogging or flooding for only short periods.  The plant will grow well even under trees because it is shade-tolerant" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 348).

"A serious weed in tropical and subtropical crops and wastelands.  Very common in open disturbed areas of forests, wastelands, and roadsides...in mesic to humid lowlands.  Grows into tall, dense stands, displacing natives, a fire hazard in dry periods"  (Motooka et al., 2003). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common, 0-850 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1569).  In Fiji, "a weed of sugarcane fields, roadsides, and river banks"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 345-346).  In Australia, "found in wetter sites, e.g. low-lying areas and creek lines.  Also disturbed areas such as along roadsides, coastal settlements and degraded land. Forms dense stands that may exclude some native species, particularly some early flowering grasses." (Smith, 2002; p. 79). In New Caledonia, "espèce variable avec plusieurs formes et cultivars. Largement répandu. Cultivé en pâturages et aussi spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 60).

Propagation:  Seeds profusely.  The seeds are dispersed by wind, birds, flowing water or as a contaminant and it can survive long periods of drought. Fire will sweep through stands of this grass but it regenerates rapidly from underground rhizomes. "Seeds are spread intentionally as a pasture species.  They are also dispersed by water, in hay or when adhered to vehicles." (Smith, 2002; p. 79).

Native range:  Africa; widely introduced and naturalized.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Introduced to the Island as a fodder plant". Vouchers cited: M. Lazarides 8047 (CANB, K), W.R. Sykes NI 524 (CHR)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 572381)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588177)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 82009)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 699856)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Marshall 27 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2506 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 61)
As Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D. Webster.
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 125933)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 345-346)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 345-346)
Voucher cited: DA 8943
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31724)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 345-346)
Vouchers cited: DA 8724, DA 8781
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 345-346)
Also var. trichoglume. Vouchers cited: DA 8210, DA 8156, Gillespie 4171, DA 8296, DA 7985, Smith 9682, DA 2847, DA 9101, DA 7871, DA 8140, DA 7456, DA 9052, DA 7749, DA 5868; var. trichoglume: DA 13187, DA 8299, DA 3611, DA 3622, DA 3626
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31722)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31725)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31726)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125927)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 345-346)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 11012 (BISH), Fosberg 11099 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. D. Webster
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. D. Webster
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6924 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. D. Webster
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood 6589 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27899)
Taxon name on voucher: Urochloa maxima Jacq.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
As Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. D. Webster
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 341)
Voucher cited: Grant 5254
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 341)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 341)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2285 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 13 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38270)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9111 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 120-122)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7010 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2285 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11318 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643326)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6227 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552800)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 214-215)
Voucher cited: Stone 4061 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 125934)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 125935)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 125936)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1569)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 17)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Presence no verified.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 60)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 43831
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
Renevier, Alain/Cherrier, Jean-Francois (1991) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 44036
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1876) (voucher ID: BISH 125917)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Germain s.n. s.loc.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 654836)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 60)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 247-248)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168777, CHR 168772
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 54)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 14, 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 16)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3108)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq. cv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3039)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq. Cu.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3081)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq. Cu.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 52)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 14, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1962) (voucher ID: BNM 146)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3137)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3081)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq. Cu.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 141)
A troublesome weed in Araucaria plantations.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 63)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 65)
Cultivated for forage purposes, occasional as an escape or persisting from former cultivation.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 125910)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417639)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 509045)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 97)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15768
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125909)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 60)
"Becoming established throughout Tonga"
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 105)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 60)
Vouchers cited: Hürlimann 22, Yuncker 15175
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 125913)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 125914)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125915)
Taxon name on voucher: Panicum maximum Jacq.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (pp. 22-23)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990505-11 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 63)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 79)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 79)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 263)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 348-351)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 341-342)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 351)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 263)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 263)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 348-351)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 348-351)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 348-351)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 59)
As Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs, naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 350)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 18)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Envahissant"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 350-351)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 132)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 153)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52105 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7223 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 58)
Vouchers cited: Jeffrey 1175, Robertson 2686
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 194)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 173)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A problem species in Guam and Hawai‘i. Very prevalent in Samoa and Tonga, forming dense stands in open and disturbed areas. Common in the Cook Islands. A major weed species in far north Queensland and a threat to the Northern Territory, Australia (Smith, 2002; p. 79).

Control: 

Chemical: "Susceptible to glyphosate including drizzle application. Young plants are susceptible to selective grass-killers" (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Photo and additional information at the University of Guam "Plants of Guam" web site.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).

Additional online information about Panicum maximum is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Panicum maximum as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Panicum maximum may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1962. Voucher specimen #BNM146(Stone, Benjamin C. 4587).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3137(Timberlake, J. 3137).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3108(Timberlake, J. 3108).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3039(Timberlake, J. 3039).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3081(Timberlake, J. 3081).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1876. Voucher specimen #BISH 125917 (Germain, M.R.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1911. Voucher specimen #BISH 125935 (McGregor, R.C. 490).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 125934 (Nelson, P. 286).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 125936 (Nelson, P. 286).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 125910 (Christophersen, E. 918).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 699856 (Wilder, G.P. 1061).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 125933 (Glassman, S.F. 2506).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125909 (Yuncker, T.G. 15768).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125915 (Yuncker, T.G. 15175).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125927 (Smith, A.C. 9682).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31722 (Koroiveibau, D. 7455).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31724 (Koroiveibau, D. 8943).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31726 (Parham, J.W. 8299).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 31725 (Koroi, U.N. 9101).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 125913 (Hotta, M. 5546).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 125914 (Hotta, M. 5648).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 82009 (Stoddart, D.R. 2235).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417639 (Whistler, W.A. W731).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 588177 (Fosberg, F.R. 59847).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 572381 (Aguon, C. 145).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 552800 (Florence, J. 6227).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 509045 (Krauss, N.H. 3053).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643326 (Florence 11318).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 654836 (Koyama, H. 8255).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Chou, C. H./Young, C. C. 1975. Phytotoxic substances in twelve subtropical grasses. J..Chem. Ecol. 1: 183-193.

.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Florence, J. 1997. Flore de la Polynésie française, Vol. 1. Paris. Editions de l'Orstom, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 34. 393 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1983. Natural history of Cousin Island. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E. 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 1. Lae, New Guinea. 215 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. 1975. The natural history of Namoluk Atoll, eastern Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 189. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 53 pp + photos.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McIntyre, Guy. 1991. Weeds of sugar cane in Mauritius, their description and control. Mauritius Sugar Industry Reseach Institute. 151 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG38270(Art Whistler W 4785).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Renevier, Alain/Cherrier, Jean-Francois. 1991. Flore et vegetation de l'Ile de Walpole. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 351. 21 pp.

Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. 1983. List of plants collected on Coetivy Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. 1983. List of plants of Poivre Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: National Reports & Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa. 185 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Smith, Nicholas M. 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT, Inc. 112 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.