Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Murraya paniculata
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Rutaceae


Evaluate, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida))) Murraya exotica L.

Chinese: jiu li xiang

English: barktree, Burmese-boxwood, China-box, Chinese box, Chinese-boxwood, Chinese-myrtle, cosmetic bark tree, Hawaiian mock orange, jasmine orange, mock orange, orange jasmine, orange jessamine, satinwood

French: bois buis, bois de Chine, bois jasmin, rameau

Maori (Cook Islands): tiare ‘ānani

Spanish: flor de ramo

Tahitian: tiare ‘ānani

Tongan: ‘olive

"Small tree or shrub to 7 m tall, evergreen; leaves pinnately 3-7 foliolate, or unifoliolate, glabrous and glossy; elliptic to cuneate-obovate to rhombic; inflorescence terminal, corymbose, few-flowered, dense, fragrant; petals 12-18 mm long, recurved, white (fading cream); fruit oblong-ovoid, red to orange"  (Welsh, 1998; p. 256). Favors limestone soils (Stone, 1970; p. 350). Seed, possibly bird-dispersed. India to Malaya, cultivated and now pantropical.
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Uncommon.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 81)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Uncommon.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Uncommon.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 513)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 8, DA 18046, DA 578, DA 1123, DA 3470
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 147560)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11052 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1975) (voucher ID: PTBG 8272)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40940)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 256)
Voucher cited: Moore 361
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 256)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4127, Florence 2459
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2459 (PAP)
Ornementale assez commune.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491731)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 350)
Voucher cited: Stone 5091 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 29)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: D. Frohlich & A. Lau 2010021903 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 32)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010726-7 (BISH)
Sparingly naturalized; all life stages present in pastures and along fence lines near Puka‘auhuhu.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 32)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 125)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 102)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 123)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 192-193)
Voucher cited: Hassall 184 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1867) (voucher ID: BISH 178258)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 126)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 9898, MacKee 12128, MacKee 38284
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 32772)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 44)
Cult. and being propagated at Vaipapahi nursery.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago possibly native
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 270)
Cultivated plants are introduced. Possibly the plant is wild on the Gazelle Peninsula.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 336-337)
In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes, sometimes planted. Often common.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 92)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3897)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Malakula (Malekula) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 628581)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Tanna Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 178645)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Tanna Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 424732)
Taxon name on voucher: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thickets; near sea level. S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S Guizhou, Hainan
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 200-201)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Natualized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 62)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/subspontanée"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1986) (p. 156)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
"Murraya exotica L. is said to differ from M. paniculata in the larger leaves (less than 4, not 3-7) cm long and petals rarely over 2 cm long (not sometimes over 2 cm long)" (Welsh (1998). Smith (1985) and Stone (1970) list them as synonyms).

Extensively used as a hedge and ornamental plant in Tonga but no naturalization noted so far (Space & Flynn, 2001).

"In Asia, M. paniculata is the preferred host to the insect pest Diaphorina citri, the citrus psyllid. The psyllid is the vector for the serious disease "citrus greening" or 'huanglongbing'. Both the psyllid and the disease have recently been confirmed in Irian Jaya and it seems almost unavoidable that they will move into Papua New Guinea. The disease is very damaging to citrus in Asia and Australia is so concerned about both the psyllid and the disease moving in her general direction that we are supporting an international program exploring the potential for biological control of the psyllid." (Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.)


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