Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Muntingia calabura
L., Muntinginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: mansanita, mansanita, manzanilla, manzanilla, manzanita, manzanita, manzanita

English: calabur-tree, calabura, capulin, jam tree, Jamaican cherry, ornamental cherry, Panama berry, Panama cherry, Singapore cherry, sirsen, strawberry tree

French: bois ramier, cerisier de Panama

Maori (Cook Islands): venevene, venevene, venevene

Nauruan: bin

Palauan: budo

Pohnpeian: terri

Spanish: bolaina yamanaza, cacaniqua, capulín blanco, nigua, niguito

Tahitian: cerise, monomona

Tongarevan: venevene

Ulithian: sugar

Yapese: budo, pelang

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small tree with tiered slightly drooping branches with crowded distichous simple alternate strongly asymmetrical sticky-pubescent oblong acuminate obliquely subcordate thin serrulate leaves, soon wilting, 2.5-15 cm long, 1-6.5 cm wide; stipules linear, about 5 mm long, caducous, flowers bisexual, 1 or few in axils, on pedicels about 2-3 cm long; sepals 5 (rarely 6 or 7), each about 1 cm long, lanceolate-caudate, tomentose-hirsute; petals white, [or pink], broadly spathulate-deltoid, about 12-13 mm long, rotate, stamens about 75; filaments slender, distinct, 6 mm long, white; anthers small yellow; disc annular, around the ovary; hirsute; ovary stipitate, glabrous, 5-celled; stigma capitate, 5-riged; fruit 5-celled baccate, sub-globose, light red, 1-1.5 cm wide, sweet-juicy, with many small (1/2 mm) elliptic grayish yellow seeds, stigma persistent" (Stone, 1970; pp. 404-405).

Habitat/ecology:  A pioneer species favoring disturbed areas. Seeds germinate only with light; plants can be shaded out by overtopping vegetation. In French Polynesia (Raiatea) naturalizing to 300 m (Welsh, 1998; p. 281). In New Caledonia, "est parfois planté dans les jardins" (MacKee, 1994; p. 49).

Propagation:  Fruits contain hundreds of tiny seeds. "The seeds are spread by birds and fruit bats, may build up to large seed banks under rainforest, and require filtered light for germination.  Seedlings are very delicate but grow rapidly, soon forming thickets the shade of which prevents further...germination." (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 51-52).

Native range:  Tropical America; widely cultivated and naturalized.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1620 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Potential invader; open fields, forest edges".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 212)
Voucher cited: G. Perez & Falanruw 3327 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635230)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635257)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000031)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000032)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 184680)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 187682)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 184679)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 184686)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 184687)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 184685)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 115)
Voucher cited: F. Sohl 19 (NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43480)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Evans 369 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81677)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81621)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81678)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 373)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-C. Thibault 1047 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40146)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39577)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 6077 (PAP), J. Florence 7233 (PAP)
Locally naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 544403)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6592)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11715 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 649989)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 281)
Voucher cited: BRY 26419
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3512 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493592)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 281)
Voucher cited: Florence 5252
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5252 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2402 (PAP), J. Florence 3332 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 699057)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 64)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Ana‘a Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Ana‘a Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4060 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491740)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 27)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10159 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642313)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 27)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7128 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 541742)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 292-294)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5996 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 545613)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 404-405)
Voucher cited: Stone 3793 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
"Potential invader".
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 23006)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 184678)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 184681)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 184683)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 588)
Voucher cited: Kerr 1-A (BISH)
Possibly naturalized.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 201)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58752 (US), Scully 139N (US), Thaman & Manner 91 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 49)
Voucher cited: MacKee 16067
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 89)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 788)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 158)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 660017)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Merir Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 625531)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 32)
In and about towns, and often thoroughly naturalized.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 30362)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mbanika Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 597641)
Taxon name on voucher: Muntingia calabura L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 13, 38)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 62)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 51-52, 120)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 26)
"Spontaneous in crevice in old fort". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36914 (US)

Comments:  Reported to be moderately invasive on Nauru (Meyer, 2000; p. 99).

Control: 

Chemical: Stem injection with 50% Roundup® in water. Possibly may be controlled by cut stump treatment with 50% Roundup® or by basal bark treatment with 10% Garlon® 600 in diesel oil. (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 51-52).

Additional information:
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.

Additional online information about Muntingia calabura is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Muntingia calabura as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Muntingia calabura may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM788(Blackburn, B. s.n.).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 184679 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3016).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 184681 (Fosberg, F.R. 25412).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 184683 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3127).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 187682 (Fosberg, F.R. 25074).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 184686 (Lange, W.H. 4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 184678 (Anderson, D. 24).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 184687 (Kondo, Y. 1).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 184680 (Fosberg, F.R. 31836).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 184685 (Kondo, Y. 26A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81621 (Fosberg, F.R. 47072).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81677 (Fosberg, F.R. 47191).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81678 (Fosberg, F.R. 46550).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 660017 (Fosberg, F.R. 47605).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 23006 (Cushing-Falanruw, M.V. 773).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491740 (Florence, J. 4060).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493592 (Florence, J. 3512).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 699057 (Florence, J. 2402).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 545613 (Florence,J. 5996).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 541742 (Florence, J. 7128).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 635230 (Herbst, D.R. 7251).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 635257 (Herbst, D.R. 7272).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000031 (Herbst, D.R. 7272).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000032 (Herbst, D.R. 7251).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 544403 (Florence,J. 7233).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642313 (Florence, J. 10159).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 597641 (Herbst, D.R. 9335).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 625531 (A.K.Kepler 92-294).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 649989 (Florence 11715).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la PolynÚsie franšaise, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. 1969. A collection of plants from Fais, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 133. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1980. Additional records of vascular plants from the northern Mariana Islands. 2. Micronesica 16: 211-214.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Orapa, Warea. 2005. Warea Orapa, Weed Mangement Officer, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, pers. com. (Trip Report, Solomon Islands, 19 April to 10 May, 2005).

Orapa, Warea. 2005. Warea Orapa, Weed Mangement Officer, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, pers. com. (Trip Report, Wallis and Futuna Islands, 8 to 22 May, 2004).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. 1991. Trees and shrubs of the northern Mariana Islands. Saipan: Coastal Resources Management Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 96950. 119 pp.

Sachet, M-H. 1983. Takapoto Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 277. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 41 pp. + photos.

Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. 1983. An ecological reconnaissance of Tetiaroa Atoll, Society Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 275. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 67 pp. + photos.

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.