Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Monochoria hastata
(L.) Solms-Laub., Pontederiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jian ye yu jiu hua

English: arrow-leaf monochoria, hastate-leaf pondweed, monochoria

Tagalog: calaboa

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description: 

Genus: Glabrous palustrine herbs, with obliquely erect stems arising from a suberect or creeping rhizome, the leaves radical, long-petiolate; inflorescence racemiform or subumbelliform, the flowers deflexed after anthesis, the 3 inner tepals the broader; 5 stamens with small, yellow anthers, the sixth with a longer filament with a lateral tooth and a larger, blue anther; fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule." (Smith, 1979; p. 175).

Species:  "A smooth, erect, aquatic, perennial herb, 30 to 100 cm tall; with a well-developed, branched rhizome; old plants form large groups which may be connected by underground stolons; leaves of mature plants 5 to 25 cm long, 4 to 20 cm wide, almost always with a sagittate or hastate, rarely  with a cordate, base, basal lobes diverging, either with acuminate tips or not, borne on long sheathlike petioles; inflorescence in spikelike racemes; flowers 15 to 60, not expanding simultaneously, lower flower stalks (pedicels) 15 to 30 mm long, higher ones 7 to 20 mm; perianth light blue, 15 to 18 mm long; fruit enclosed by the perianth, about 1 cm long; seeds numerous, light brown, with faint longitudinal lines, blunt at one end, rounding at the other, minute"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 340).

Key to species:

M. vaginalis: "Rhizome short; leaf blades of adult plants emersed, ovate-oblong to broadly ovate, obtuse or rounded or truncate-cordate at base, 2-12.5 x 0.5-10 cm, the basal lobes if present broadly rounded; flowers 3-25, expanding simultaneously or essentially so; perianth 11-15 mm long."

M. hastata:  "Rhizome well developed, branched; leaf blades of adult plants usually with a sagittate or hastate base, 7-25 x 5-20 cm, the basal lobes divergent; flowers 15-60, not expanding simultaneously; perianth 15-18 mm long" (Smith, 1979; p. 175).

Habitat/ecology:  "In Java, M. hastata grows from 0 to 700 m elevation in freshwater pools, mudflats in rivers, ditches and rice fields, and along canal banks (Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. 1968).  In Fiji, it grows in shallow water, swampy ground, open drains, rice fields, or in very wet soils (Parham, 1958)" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 340). In Fiji, "sparsely cultivated" (Smith, 1979; p. 175).

Propagation:  Seed. "Many seeds are produced by each plant" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 340).

Native range:  Southeastern Asia and Malesia (Smith, 1979; p. 175), naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 175)
Voucher cited: DA 12290
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 200)
In open wet lands, swamps, etc., at low and medium altitudes.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Pools, rice fields, ditches; 100-700 m. Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 356)
In paddy fields and ponds.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Java
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 61)
Weed of uncertain origin
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  An ornamental used in water gardens (Smith, 1979; p. 175).


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This page was created on 18 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 15 AUG 2013.