Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Mimosa pudica
L., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: torog-torog

Cebuano: huya-huya, kirom-kirom

Chamorro: betguen sosa

Chinese: han xiu cao

English: common sensitive plant, sensitive grass, sensitive plant, shameplant, sleeping grass, touch-me-not

Fijian: co gadrogadro, cogadrogadro, cokadrokadro, cokadrokadro, ngandrongandro, tho kandrodandro, tho ngandrongandro

Filipino: tuyag-tuyag

French: sensitive

Hawaiian: pua hilahila

Hindi: lajalu, lajwania, lajwanti

I-Kiribati: te kaimatu

Iloko: babain

Japanese: nemurigusa

Maori (Cook Islands): paope ‘āvare, pikika‘a, pikika‘a, rākau ‘avare, rākau ‘avarevare, rākau pikika‘a, rākau pikika‘a, tiare pikika‘a, titā ‘āvarevare, titā ‘āvarevare, titā pikika‘a

Niuean: memege

Other: nemas une-map

Palauan: mechiuaiu

Pohnpeian: limemeirkelik, limemeirpong, limemeirpwong

Rotuman: aifeaefarmori

Samoan: vao fefe, vao fefe

Spanish: dormidera, sensitiva

Subanen: sipug-sipug

Tagalog: makahiya

Tahitian: pohe ha‘avare, pope ha‘avare

Tongan: mateloi

Wallisian: malualoi, malualoi

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A much-branched perennial herb, slightly woody at the base; with either an upright or low trailing habit, from 20 to 100 cm in height; stems stiff with thorns and scattered prickles on internodes, reddish brown or purple; leaves normally with one or two compound leaflets, bipinnate; leaflets 12 to 25 pairs, oblong-linear, pointed, with hairy margins, 9 to 12 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, leaflets when touched draw back and fold up together with pinnae and petioles, movements are quickest  in young plants; flower heads pinkish, ovoid, 9 mm in diameter, on axillary peduncles 12 to 25 mm long, with prickles; stamens four; pods attached in a cluster, oblong, almost flat, pointed at tip, edges armed with small, outstanding prickles, 1 to 2 cm long, 3 to 5 mm wide, breaking into once-seeded joints; seeds one to five, flattened, small, 3 mm in diameter.  The leaves which are sensitive (leaflets are drawn back and folded with the pinnae and petioles) when touched are a distinguishing characteristic of this species" (Holm et al., 1977; p 332).

"More or less prostrate perennial creeper; stems reddish-brown, prickly; leaves immediately folding by pulvini if touched or jarred; pinnae 4, often reddish; leaflets 12-25 pairs, linear, acute, bristly; 9-12 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; flowers pink, in globose heads, nearly 1 cm in diameter, axillary, peduncle up to 2.5 cm long; pods crowded, flat, prickly-bristly, indented between the few (2-4) seeds, to nearly 2 cm long; seeds about 2 mm broad, rounded, brown" (Stone, 1970; p. 302).

Habitat/ecology:  "Sensitive plant grows on most well drained soils, even scalped or eroded subsoils and soils with low nutrient concentrations. It requires disturbed soils to establish itself. Repeated burning may encourage its spread in pastures (Siregar and others 1990). Sensitive plant is shade intolerant and does not compete with tall vegetation or grow under forest canopies. The species' roots produce carbon disulfide, which selectively inhibits colonization of the rhizosphere by mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi (Feng and others 1998). This plant occurs in croplands, orchards, pastures, mowed areas, roadsides, and areas disturbed by construction. It may grow as a single plant or in tangled thickets. Sensitive plant grows from near sea level up to 1,300 m in elevation (Holm and others 1977) and in areas with annual precipitations from about 1000 to over 2000 mm"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

"Common in rather moist waste ground, in lawns, in open plantations, and weedy thickets" (Stone, 1970; p. 302).  Forms a dense ground cover, preventing reproduction of other species.  A wildland fire hazard when dry. 

In Fiji, "an abundantly naturalized weed in cultivated areas, along roadsides, in pastures, on waste land, and forming mats on the dry mud of river banks, at elevations up to about 500 m"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 61-62).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open, dry to wet, disturbed areas, especially lawns, 5-700 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 687-688). In New Guinea, "a weed of pastures, roadsides and coconut plantations. At low and median altitudes." (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 119). In Tonga, "a common weed in plantations, grazing areas and waste areas" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 130). In New Caledonia, "elle est commune aujourd'hui, souvent en dehors des pâturages" (MacKee, 1994; p. 79). "Mauvaise herbe pantropicale, utilisée parfois le long des routes comme plante de couverture contre l'érosion" (Nielsen, 1983; pp. 19-23).

Propagation:  "Seed pods float and are spread by water.  Pods are also spread when attached to fur, clothing and mud on vehicles. Spread by bulldozers, graders, roadside slashers, etc."  (Smith, 2002; pp. 34-35).

Native range:  First described from Brazil, now a pan-tropical weed.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 40)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000)
Reported to be present but not seen by Space & Flynn.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 36)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 92)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1920) (voucher ID: BISH 155111)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 34)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 10222)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 155113)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 155075)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2432 (US), Kanehira 863 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 94)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 21a (NY, PTBG), D. Anderson 831 (BISH), M.J. Balick 3827 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 3940 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58504 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2432 (BISH), R. Kanehira 863 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 8100 (MO, NY, PTBG, US), P. Raynor 165 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 801 (BISH)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 155073)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 155082)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 155087)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 660427)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 33545)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L. var. var. hispida Brenan
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41825)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L. var. var. hispida Brenan
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28677)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L. var. var. hispida Brenan
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 34631)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L. var. var. hispida Brenan
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43758)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica var. hispida
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Tomil Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697180)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 155085)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 660428)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 698056)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 61-62)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 775
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420644)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 614983)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 61-62)
Voucher cited: DA 4048
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 61-62)
Vouchers cited: DA 5028, DA 9107
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 61-62)
Voucher cited: DA 10223
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420643)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 61-62)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 392, Smith 4750, DA 11352, DA 9456, Greenwood 392A, DA 4047, DA 10617, DA 10579, DA 12267; Fiji, no location, Seemann 140
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14447)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 155105)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 155106)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11166 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 2094 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1964) (voucher ID: PTBG 13218)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica var. unijuga
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach. Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman , K.R. Wood , J.-P. Luce & B. Rollet 15943 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 26302)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach. Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood, J.-Y. Meyer, J.-P. Kautai & B. Kohumoetini 15879 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 52)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 61194 (PAP); var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11704 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643405)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64764 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 52)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2134 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491680)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Sachet 952 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 155)
Vouchers cited: Moore 9, BRY 25738
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 52)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5237 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492319)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607297)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 155)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3096 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493041)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 14)
Adventice d'introduction européene.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7078 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 544948)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6226 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552802)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. unijuga (E.P. Duchassaing & W.G. Walpers) A.H.K. Grisebach
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 302)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 155078)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 155079)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 660429)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 660430)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 22718)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L. var. var. hispida Brenan
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 22657)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica var. unijuga
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 687-688)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 687-688)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 687-688)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 687-688)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 13)
Var. unijuga, voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110139 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde (2007) (p. 37)
Var. unijuga (Duchass. & Walp.) Griseb. Voucher cited: H. St. John 22798 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 687-688)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 402 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36640
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36640 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 155081)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 150)
Vouchers cited: Scully 156N (US), Hassall 190 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 79)
Var. hispida Brenan.; voucher cited: Baumann & Guillaumin 10531; var. tetrandra (H. et. B. ex Willd.) DC.; vouchers cited: Schlecter 14882, MacKee 38050, MacKee 38467, MacKee 38575; var. unijuga (Duchass. & Walp.) Griseb.; vouchers cited: Boudouin 34 s.loc., MacKee 4066
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 10866)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 664395)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 79)
Var. unijuga (Duchass. & Walp.) Griseb.; voucher cited: Baumann 13760
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 664402)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 122)
Voucher cited: CHR 168725
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 35)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 59)
"Not seen, but claimed by local informants to occur on the island".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4422)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 47531)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica var. hispida
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 93)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 660426)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660537)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 468)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 467)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 209)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 119)
At low and median altitudes, sometimes common.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 34)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 159)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 251)
In open waste places at low and medium altitudes in the settled areas, common and abundant.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (pp. 7-8)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1906) (voucher ID: BISH 155112)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (pp. 7-8)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 29219)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 92)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Dominant invader.
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 88
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 651881)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1000821)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 130)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 130)
Cited: Lister.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Soakai 615
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 130)
Vouchers cited: Hülimann 45, Yuncker 15158
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 155108)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 155109)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 155110)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 350)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Uhe, G. (1972)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 456081)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Soakai 864
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 130)
Cited: Harvey, Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 36)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 155104)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 180)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 11, 35)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 26)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 34-35)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 34-35)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 159)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Wilderness tracts, wastelands, or cultivated; sea level to 1500 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 132-133)
Along roadside, ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 159)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 159)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 61)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 159)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 159)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 120)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 151)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 884 (K, US), Stoddart 841 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 28)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37912)
Taxon name on voucher: Mimosa pudica L.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 21)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 150)
Voucher cited: Roberston 3158 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2698
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Groupe d'Aldabra introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Comments:  A declared noxious weed in Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Smith, 2002; pp. 34-35).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand weeding is difficult due to thorns and a woody root (Wagner, 1983).  "Seems to be controlled by intensive grazing management, under which under which cattle will kick the hilahila out of the way to get at the grass beneath.  Hawaiian variety reportedly toxic to livestock, although no actual cases of livestock poisoning have been reported, probably because cattle do not graze it.  In Western Samoa, cattle have been grazed on pure hilahila stands, but the toxicity of the Samoan ecotypes is not known"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical: "It is susceptible to several herbicides, including dicamba, glyphosate, picloram and triclopyr" (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 447-449).  "Very sensitive to picloram (0.25 lb/acre), sensitive to triclopyr (1 lb/acre). Poor control with dicamba and 2,4-D. Soil-applied tebuthiuron effective" (Motooka et al., 2003).

Biological: See Waterhouse and Norris (1987; pp. 328-331) and Waterhouse (1994; pp. 161-162) for lists of natural enemies and information on prospective biological control agents.

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format).
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).

Additional online information about Mimosa pudica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Mimosa pudica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Mimosa pudica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM467(Blackburn, B. E-18).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM468(Hardy, S. 21).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2007. Voucher specimen #BNM4422(Balick et al. 4422).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1906. Voucher specimen #BISH 155112 (Vaupel, F. 123).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1920. Voucher specimen #BISH 155111 (Setchell, W.A. 33).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 155104 (Kajewski, S.F. 370).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 155073 (Kanehira, R. 863).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 155113 (Wilder, G.P. 1005).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 155085 (Takamatsu, M. 1859).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 155087 (Takamatsu, M. 801).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 155105 (St.John, H. 18916).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 614983 (St.John, H. 19262).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 155075 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2776).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 155078 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3187).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 697180 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3270).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 29219 (Giffen 3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 155106 (Smith, A.C. 4750).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 698056 (Wong, C.C.Y. 489).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 10866 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 1612).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 155082 (Glassman, S.F. 2432).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 155110 (Yuncker, T.G. 15158).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 155081 (Fosberg, F.R. 36640).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 155108 (Soakai, E. 615).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 10222 (Krauss, N.L.H. 458).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 14447 (Pillay, S. 12267).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 155079 (Shmull, Y. 70).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 660429 (Evans, M. 686).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 155109 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1029).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 660537 (Blackburn, B.S. E 18).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 660426 (Hardy, S.A. 21).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 664402 (Mackee, H.S. 23482).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 456081 (Kirch, P.V. 318).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 420643 (Garnock-Jones, P.J. 307322).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 420644 (Garnock-Jones, P.J. 307323).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 660427 (Fosberg, F.R. 58504).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 660428 (Fosberg, F.R. 59998).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 660430 (Fosberg, F.R. 59671).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 491680 (Florence, J. 2134).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 664395 (Mackee, H.S. 38575).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493041 (Florence, J. 3096).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 607297 (Fosberg, F.R. 63538).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 651881 (Buelow, G. 2712).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000821 (G.Buelow 2712).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492319 (Florence, J. 5237).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 552802 (Florence, J. 6226).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 544948 (Florence, J. 7078).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643405 (Florence 11704).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Englberger, Konrad. 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei. 29 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1959. Additional records of phanerogams from the northern Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 68. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 9 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Imada, Clyde. 2007. New Hawaiian plant records for 2005-2006. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96:34-41.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McIntyre, Guy. 1991. Weeds of sugar cane in Mauritius, their description and control. Mauritius Sugar Industry Reseach Institute. 151 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie. 2008. Rapport de mission sur l'atoll de Raro‘ia (Tuamotu Centre) du 12 au 19 Octobre 2008: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire. de l'avifaune terrestre & marine, et recommandations de conservation et de gestion [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 24 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1980. Voucher specimen #PTBG22718(F. R. Fosberg 59671).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG37912(Art Whistler 9845).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1997. Voucher specimen #PTBG33545(M. J. Balick 3827).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1997. Voucher specimen #PTBG28677(David H. Lorence 8100).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1998. Voucher specimen #PTBG34631(M. J. Balick 3940).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG41825(E. Albert 21 a).

Nielsen, I. 1983. Légumineuses-Mimosées. In: Leroy, Jean-F. et MacKee, H.S. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris.

Oppenheimer, Hank L. 2003. New plant records from Maui and Hawai‘i Counties. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 73:3-30.

Parham, J. W. 1958. The weeds of Fiji. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 35. 196 pp.

Parsons, W. T./Cuthbertson, E. G. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 692 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. 1983. List of plants collected on Coetivy Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Sachet, M.-H. 1983. Natural history of Mopelia Atoll, Society Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Reserch Bulletin 274. 37 pp.

Setchell, William Albert. 1924. American Samoa; part I. Vegetation of Tutuila Island. part II. Ethnobotany of the Samoans. part III. Vegetation of Rose Atoll. The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 275 pp. + illus.

Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: National Reports & Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa. 185 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Smith, Nicholas M. 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT, Inc. 112 pp.

Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. Report to the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 32 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane. 2000. Invasive plant species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 31 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1981. The vegetation of Late, Tonga. Allertonia 2(6):323-353.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

Thaman, R. R./Tuiwawa, M. 1999. Invasive, potentially invasive and adventive alien plant species of Fiji: a preliminary analysis of their status and measures required for their control. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region: Regional Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October 1999.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Uhe, G. 1972. The composition of the plant communities inhabiting the recent volcanic ejecta of Niuafo‘ou, Tonga. Trop. Ecol. 15(1&2):126-139.

Unknown. 0. Plants found in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Gilbert and Ellis Islands Colony. Dept. of Agriculture, Technical Handbook. Unpaged typed manuscript.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1994. Biological control of weeds: Southeast Asian prospects. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 302 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 93 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F./Norris, K. R. 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. Inkata Press, Melbourne. 454 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1983. Weed Handbook of Western Polynesia. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn. 151 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1984. Annotated list of Samoan plant names. Economic Botany 38:464.489.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia 5(4):347-424.

Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. 1997. Botanical survey of the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area, Niue. Unpublished technical report. 76 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.

World Health Organization. 1998. Medical plants in the South Pacific. Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila. 254 pp.

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Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 MAR 2010.