Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Mikania scandens
(L.) Willd., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: climbing hempvine, climbing hempweed

Spanish: guaco

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A herbaceous, perennial vine; stems branched, slightly four-angled, sparsely to densely pubescent; leaves opposite at swollen nodes, mostly triangular, 4 to 12 cm long, 2 to 7 cm wide, on a petiole 1 to 10 cm long, base sagittate, cordate, or hastate, tip acuminate, margins entire or with few teeth, surfaces glabrous, three- to seven-veined from base; flowers in small heads 5 to 7 mm long, crowded in round-topped, lateral and terminal, modified panicles (corymbs); involucral bracts four, linear-lanceolate, 4 to 5 mm long, attenuate, often purplish tinged, with an additional smaller bract; corolla pink, pale purplish, or rarely white; fruit an achene, oblong, 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, brownish black, five-angled; pappus of 30 to 35 bristles 2 to 4 mm long, white or sometimes purple"  (Holm et al., 1977; pp. 320-322).

"Glabrous vine with ovate to cordate or hastate leaves, acuminate, coarsely dentate or repand, 5-10 cm long, 2-5 cm wide; petioles slender, shorter than the blades; heads in terminal clusters; involucre about 5-6 mm long, bracts lanceolate-acuminate; corollas white; achenes resinous" (Stone, 1970).

The differences between M. scandens and M. micrantha are as follows:  "[T]he inflorescence is habitually looser and more paniculate in M. micrantha than in M. scandens; the inflorescence in M. scandens is mostly crowded with round-topped corymbs. The phyllaries (bracts) of the heads are acute in M. micrantha rather than attenuate as in M. scandensM. micrantha seems never to show the purplish coloration which is nearly always present in M. scandens.  Although the leaves vary greatly in contour both in M. scandens and in M. micrantha, they tend on the whole to be more sharply angled and triangular-sagittate or -hastate in M. scandens and more oval, cordate, and merely crenate in M. micrantha"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 322).

Habitat/ecology:  "The plant is frequently found in woods, thickets, and swamps" in its native habitat (Holm et al., 1977; p. 322).

Propagation:  Seed dispersed by wind or in clothing or hair of animals. Vegetatively reproduces from broken stem fragments. Each node of the stem can produce roots.

Use as cattle feed, cover crop and a garden ornamental helps to spread the species.

Native range:  Temperate to subtropical eastern North America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
See also Mikania micrantha. Possible missidentification?
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 581)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3995 (GUAM), Stone 4481 (GUAM), Stone 4903 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: McPherson 6618
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: Uhe 1036 (NOU), Veillon 238 (NOU), MacKee 15179, MacKee 33276
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 557)
Common at bush margins.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 322)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 598)
Often common in thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 322)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 322)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 159)
A later publication (Topp, 1988) identifies this species as Mikania micrantha. Vouchers cited: Rhyne 616 (US), Stoddart 885 (K), Stoddart 793 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
Apparently previously reported as Mikania micrantha.
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37881)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 237)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  On the State of Hawai‘i noxious weed list.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Mikania scandens is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Mikania scandens as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Mikania scandens may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG37881(Art Whistler 9752).

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. 1971. Geography and ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 149. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 237 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 JAN 2007.