Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Mikania micrantha
H.B.K., Asteraceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 25 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: wei gan ju

English: American rope, bittervine, Chinese creeper, climbing hempweed, mikania vine, mile-a-minute weed

Fijian: ovaova, usuvanua, wa bosucu, wa butako, wa mbosuthu, wa mbosuvu, wa mbutako, wa ndamele

French: liane américaine, liane serpent

Kwara‘ae: kwalo kalialo, kwalo kauburu

Maori (Cook Islands): pō kutekute

Niuean: fou laina, fue saina

Palauan: teb el yas

Pohnpeian: selmwadang

Samoan: fue saina, fue saina

Spanish: camotille

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A branched, slender-stemmed perennial vine.  The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs along the stems and are heart-shaped or triangular with an acute tip and a broad base.  Leaves may be 4-13 cm long.  The flowers, each 3-5 mm long, are arranged in dense terminal or axillary corymbs.  Individual florets are white to greenish-white.  The seed is black, linear-oblong, five-angled and about 2 mm long.  Each seed has a terminal pappus of white bristles that facilitates dispersal by wind or on the hair of animals" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998)."[A] fast growing, perennial, creeping or twining plant; stems branched, pubescent to glabrous, ribbed; leaves opposite, thin, cordate, triangular, or ovate, blade 4 to 13 cm long, 2 to 9 cm wide, on a petiole 2 to 8 cm long, base cordate or somewhat hastate, tip acuminate, margins coarsely dentate, crenate, or subentire, both surfaces glabrous, three- to seven-nerved from base; flowers in heads 4.5 to 6 mm long, in terminal and lateral openly rounded, corymbous panicles; involucral bracts four, oblong to obovate, 2 to 4 mm long, acute, green, and with one additional smaller bract 1 to 2 mm long; four flowers per head; corollas white, 3 to 4 mm long; fruit an achene, linear-oblong, 1.5 to 2 mm long, black, five-angled, glabrous; pappus of 32 to 38 soft white bristles 2 to 4 mm long" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 322).

Description from the Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  A smothering vine.  "Disturbed forest, stream banks, roadsides, pastures, plantations and cultivated crops.  Humid, sunny or shaded habitats; 0-2000 m altitude. Thought to interfere with soil nitrification processes."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 27-28).  "A major weed in plantations, pastures and along roadsides, and an intermediate weed in crops and forestry.  It grows best where fertility, organic matter, and soil and air humidities are all high.  Mile-a-minute tolerates some shade, and very rapidly overgrows abandoned areas"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 17).

In Niue, "many cleared areas, especially in or near forest, are overrun by Mikania micrantha and the ground is rapidly covered by a dense tangled mat of trailing stems.  It Also tends to smother shrubs and small trees, these being sometimes almost hidden by the aptly named mile-a-minute."  (Sykes, 1970; p. 67). In Fiji, "a scrambling or climbing vine found at elevations from near sea level to about 800 m as a pernicious and often abundant weed on the edges of forest, in clearings, thickets, second-growth forest, and pastures, and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 297-299). In New Guinea, "a weed of pastures, cultivation and young plantations, rapidly blanketing other vegetation. From near sea level to over 2000 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 77).

Propagation:  Seed dispersed by wind or in clothing or hair of animals. Vegetatively reproduces from broken stem fragments. Each node of the stem can produce roots. Use as cattle feed, cover crop, and a garden ornamental helps to spread the species.

Native range:  Mexico, Central and South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 40)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3461
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 52)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430198)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35349)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha Kunth
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 52)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 39038)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha Kunth
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 52)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 39103)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha Kunth
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 132464)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 132467)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 44419)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665337)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664882)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664888)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 5)
Voucher: BMW 5760 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Recent introduction.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687684)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 297-299)
Voucher cited: Smith 13
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 132475)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 297-299)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 893
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 297-299)
Voucher cited: Bryan 605
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 132474)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 297-299)
Voucher cited: DA 5726
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448518)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 297-299)
Vouchers cited: Smith 1733, DA 8769, Smith 391
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 132472)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 132473)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 297-299)
Voucher cited: DA 10215
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 297-299)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 94, DA 10409, Smith 4009, DA 10161, Degener 15084, DA 10530, DA 11861, DA 9554, Weiner 257, DA 11915, Smith 7226, DA 10595, DA 12615, Knowles s. n.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 33819)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 33820)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 132476)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 132477)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 132478)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 132479)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 448644)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 132481)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 438136)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 438140)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 571510)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 6)
"Locally common; a smothering vine covering bananas and other plants behind Bikini Projects complex; probable new record for country; the most treatening species found, one which could potentially cause great agriculturally and environmentally damage; residents around camp said they had not known it to flower but if it does, its windborne seeds could potentially spread over the entire island".
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 67)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170417, CHR 170499
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 11)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 26)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 116)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9864 (BISH)
"A rapidly growing, weedy vine common in waste areas and plantations. It forms dense, tangled mats on the ground and in surrounding vegetation and is regarded as a pest".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 85)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 81)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 81)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 81)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 90)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 38)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 132469)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 132470)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28598)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 132466)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 132468)
Taxon name on voucher: Mikania micrantha H.B.K.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 92)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 165)
Dominant invader.
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Buelow 769
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
"Forest margins".
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Present only on Wallis at this time.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 11, 32)
Cette liane herbacée est abondamment naturalisée. Elle pourrait avoir été introduite par les soldats américains durant la seconde guerre mondiale comme plante de camouflage. Son expansion en zone ouverte (cultures, lisières de forêt) peut être accélérée par des perturbations du milieu (déforestation, cyclones). Ses graines sont disséminées par le vent.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 11)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
Secondary forest.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M (2003) (p. 480)
Subject of an eradication program.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 285)
On margin of forests, open field, in wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 61)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 67, 78)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 46, 119)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 9)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Rivers, Julie (2004) (p. 3)
Probably Mikania scandens based on voucher by Whistler.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 236-237)

Comments:  A very invasive species throughout the Pacific.  On U.S. Federal and State of Hawai‘i noxious weed lists.

Apparently a relatively new introduction to Kosrae but already quite widespread (Space et al., 2000).

New introduction to Yap (Duane Nelson, pers. com.).

New introductions to Pohnpei and Palau subject of eradication programs (Duane Nelson, pers. com.)

A very aggressive weed in American Samoa, Samoa and Niue.

Widespread on Rarotonga and ‘Atiu, less so on Aitutaki, Cook Islands. There are only a few patches at present on Miti‘aro and a single small area on Ma‘uke, which could probably be eradicated (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Widespread on Rota (Space et al., 2000).

Recently discovered in Queensland, Australia, and subject of an eradication program there.

Thought to have been introduced into Vanuatu during World War Two.

Has recently spread from Hong Kong to mainland China (Matthew Cock, communication to Aliens listserver).

Control: 

Physical: "The seeds are dispersed by air currents and germinate readily on moist bare soil.  Seedlings and established plants are susceptible to chipping or cultivation in dry weather, but the vines root readily when left in contact with moist soil or plant debris.  The shoots are susceptible to slashing and mowing, but regrowth is rapid.  Plants can be grazed or cut and fed to stock" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 27).

Chemical:  "Probably susceptible to:  1) many residual herbicides at standard rates; 2) translocated herbicides including glyphosate and 2,4-D before flowering; 3) contact herbicides, including paraquat, while seedlings; however, established plants will probably recover from the base" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 27).  "Herbicides such as triclopyr (Garlon 4) or glyphosate (Roundup) can be used as a foliar spray"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 5).

Biological: A rust fungus from South America, Puccinia spegazzinii, is being introduced under quarantine for trials in India (Carol Ellison, communication to the Aliens listserver).

"A thrips, Liothrips mikaniae, has been released in Malaysia and the Solomon Islands, but extremely high predation is believed to have prevented its establishment"  (Waterhouse, 1994, p. 125).  Waterhouse (1994, pp. 127-135) lists natural enemies of the species and attempts at biological control.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 15 AUG 2013.