Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Melia azedarach
L., Meliaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Melia candollei A. Juss.; Melia floribunda Carrière; Melia toosendan Siebold & Zucc.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: paraiso, paráisu

Chinese: chuan liang zi, lian

English: bead tree, Cape-lilac, Chinaberry, chinaberry-tree, Indian lilac, margosa tree, Persian lilac, pride of India, Sichuan pagoda tree, syringa berrytree, Texas umbrella-tree, tulip-cedar, umbrella-cedar, umbrella-tree, white cedar

Fijian: bakain, dake

French: arbre à chapelets, lilas de Chine, lilas des Indes, lilas des Perse

Hawaiian: ‘ilinia, ‘inia

Japanese: sendan

Korean: meolguseulnamu

Kwara‘ae: buriakalo

Mangarevan: paina

Maori (Cook Islands): tīra

Nauruan: gadong, gadung

Niuean: sili, tili

Pohnpeian: lelah

Spanish: jasmin de Arabia, jazmin, melia, paraiso, San Jacinto

Tahitian: tira

Tongan: sita

Ulithian: prais

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small to medium tree; leaves bipinnate, the lowest pinnae sometimes once more divided (thus partly tripinnate); leaves up to 40-50 cm long, less than half as wide; 5-7 per pinna; base somewhat inequilateral; inflorescence an axillary open panicle to 20 cm long; flowers pale lavender (lilac), nearly 2 cm broad; calyx 5-6-parted, puberulent; petals 5-6, ob-lanceolate, about 8 mm long; stamen-tube lilac, as long as a petal, 10 anthers; ovary with a small disc, 5-6-celled; ovules 2 per cell; fruit subglobose, yellow, to 1.5 cm long" (Stone, 1970; pp. 357-358).

Habitat/ecology:  This fast-growing, deciduous tree reaches 20 m in height.  Its wide-spreading branches form a deep shade. It grows between sea level and 700 m in open dry habitats. It favors old fields, abandoned lots, roadsides, and other disturbed areas (C. W. Smith, 1985; pp. 194-195).  "Riparian habitats, forests, grassland, disturbed sites.  In the native range, this rapidly growing tree occurs in lowland to highland rainforests.  Where invasive, it builds up dense stands that outcompete native plant species and prevent regeneration of shrubs and trees"  (Weber, 2003; p. 258).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed areas, especially gulches and pastures, 0-610 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 918).  In Fiji, "cultivated or sparingly naturalized at low elevations"  (Smith, 1985; p. 529). In Tonga, "presumably introduced as an ornamental but occasionally adventive" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 157). In New Caledonia, "parfois planté et souvent naturalisé" (MacKee, 1994; p. 101). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; pp. 76-77).

Propagation:  "The tree flowers throughout the year and produces huge numbers of seeds that are widely dispersed by birds.  The juvenile period is very short and platns may begin to flower even at seedling stage"  (Weber, 2003; p. 258).

Native range:  Eastern and southeastern Asia, Australia, Solomon Islands; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN). "This species is cultivated and sometimes naturalized in many warm-temperate and tropical parts of the world. Because of its extensive cultivation and tendency to become naturalized in disturbed habitats, its original wild distribution is uncertain"  (Flora of China online).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"Probably introduced as a timber tree and now naturalised". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1192 (K), W.R. Sykes NI 616 (CHR), G. Uhe 1138 (K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 29)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 87)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 160372)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
"Potential invader"
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 160373)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 160405)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Presence not verified.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 85)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 700 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 112)
Voucher cited: M. Takamatsu 598 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 160406)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 160407)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 160409)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 160408)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 529)
Voucher cited: Tothill & Paine 62
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 619153)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 529)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 266, DF 546, DA 39, DA 12346, DA L.11530, DA 18852
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 15189)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 33433)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 417166)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: St. John 14675 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: St. John 14621 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Mesic habitats"
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B. Huguenin s.n. (PAP), B. Huguenin s.n. (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: St. John 14898 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Quayle & Curtis 461 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4873 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 183)
Vouchers cited: Moore 699, Moore 724
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 183)
Voucher cited: BRY 26544
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 183)
Voucher cited: Grant 5459
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2283 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 39)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5739 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11261 (PAP)
Naturalisé en bordure de route.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553654)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 644234)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6065 (PAP), R. Graffe 13 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 543900)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 543901)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558115)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 357-358)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 160401)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 160402)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 160404)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 918-919)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 918-919)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 918-919)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 918-919)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Hughes 43 (BISH)
Naturalized in lowland gulches and disturbed areas.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 918-919)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 918-919)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands native
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 257)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 128)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 169)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58732, Scully 122N, Thaman & Manner 74 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 101)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 504 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 101)
Vouchers cited: Grunow s.n. (W), Sarasin 236 (Z), Franc A 95, MacKee 4312, MacKee 32128
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 101)
Voucher cited: MacKee 33736
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Yande introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 101)
Voucher cited: Däniker 372a (Z)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 119)
Mostly cultivated. Vouchers cited: CHR 169808, CHR 169809
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 24)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 71)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9800 (BISH), Yuncker 9859 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 12)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13-14, 85)
Naturalizing.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 16)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13-14, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 16)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 16)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 16)
Carp Resort
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 283, 285)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 360)
Cultivated in the larger towns for its fragrant flowers, but nowhere natualized.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 38)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417493)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 29200)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 402105)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also naturalized.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 90)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 157)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15631
Occasionally adventive.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 160383)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 456082)
Taxon name on voucher: Melia azedarach L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 157)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 31)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Grows in subtropical and dry rainforest, mostly on margins and in regrowth, north from Milton and west to and inland to the upper Hunter Valley; widely cultivated, especially in inland districts, occasionally naturalized."
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous forests, sparse forests, field margins, roadsides; 500-2100 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Shandong, S Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, SE Xizang, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 198)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 232)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Lesser Sunda Islands
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Kyushu, Shikoku
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 232)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous forests, sparse forests, field margins, roadsides; 500-2100 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 18)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 128)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7279 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2690
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A problem species in Hawai‘i and some islands in French Polynesia (Mangareva, Akamaru, Taravai) (Meyer, 1998).

Common on Mangaia and also present on Rarotonga, Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Ma‘uke and Miti‘aro, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning, 2010).

Invasive in South Africa.

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  Hand-pull seedlings. Can be grazed by cattle.

Chemical:  Treatment with triclopyr (Randall & Marinelli, 1996).

"Triclopyr ester, 10% product in oil applied to basal bark or triclopyr amine applied to cut-surface provided excellent control; foliar application of triclopyr amine 1% product in high volume spraying provided good control"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2013.