Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Melaleuca quinquenervia
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Myrtaceae


High risk, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 20 (Go to the risk assessment  (U.S. (Florida))) Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav.

English: belbowrie, broadleaf paperbark, broadleaf teatree, cajeput, cajuput, coastal teatree, five-vein paperbark, melaleuca, paper bark tree, paperbark, paperbark teatree, punk tree, swamp tea tree, tea tree

French: niaouli

Other: itahou

"Trees to 20-25 m tall, bark whitish or pale brown, spongy, exfoliating.  Leaves alternate, coriaceous, lanceolate to oblanceolate, 5-9 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm wide, 3-nerved or 5-nerved, glabrous, glandular punctate, apex acute, base cuneate, petioles ca 3-8 mm long, twisted.  Flowers in cylindrical spikes ca 3-10 cm long, the axis silky pubescent; sepals broadly deltate-ovate, ca 1.2-1.5 mm long; petals cream, ca 2.5-3 mm long; stamens ca 10-15 mm long; filaments connate at base.  Fruit woody, short-cylindrical, ca 3-4 mm long, 4-5 mm in diameter"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 964). "Wet forests, cypress swamps, marshes, wet grassland.  In the native range, this tree often grows in pure stands on creek banks and in swamps.  Where invasive, it rapidly colonizes freshwater wetlands and almost completely displaces the native vegetation, thereby degrading prime wildlife habitat.  The tree grows well ion poor soils, is tolerant of flooding and is a prolific seed producer.  The tree resprouts easily after damage.  Stands of this tree can carry fires into the canopies, thereby killing other tree species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 257).

In Hawai‘i, "this evergreen tree reaches heights of 12 m and invades open swampy areas. The leaves appear to have allelopathic activity, probably of a similar nature to that of other members of the Myrtaceae. Like many other members of its family, it is adapted to fire, which generally results in an intensification of the infestation.  Paperbark infests wet habitats between 100-1,000 m" (C. W. Smith, 1985; p. 194).  Naturalized in disturbed mesic forest, 30-890 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 964). The seeds are dispersed by wind and water. Large numbers of seeds are stored on the tree in the fruiting capsules and are released when fire or other disturbance occurs. Eastern Australia, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 116)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 60452 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 652585)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 191)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 304)
Voucher cited: DA 11562
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 33225)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 198)
Voucher cited: Florence 2523
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2523 (PAP)
Cultivée. Assez rare à Tahiti.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491488)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 191)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 964)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 964)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer, Wood, Perlman & Bacon H10804 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 964)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 964)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 964)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art native
Dawson, John Wyndham (1992) (pp. 217-222)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19324
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Pott native
Dawson, John Wyndham (1992) (pp. 217-222)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19365
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré native
Dawson, John Wyndham (1992) (pp. 217-222)
Voucher cited: MacKee 39016
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre native
Dawson, John Wyndham (1992) (pp. 217-222)
Numerous vouchers cited.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 165389)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 401953)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 506479)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 580711)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 628934)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) native
Dawson, John Wyndham (1992) (pp. 217-222)
Voucher cited: Baumann-Bodenheim 13668, Baumann-Bodenheim 13858, Baumann-Bodenheim 13881
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Yande native
Dawson, John Wyndham (1992) (pp. 217-222)
Voucher cited: MacKee 22691
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 32)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Canfield, Joan E. (1980) (p. 197)
Voucher cited: Canfield 687 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 15-16)
Voucher: Lorence 9919 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 689750)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1310)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 212)
Taxon name on voucher: Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 163)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 59)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Occurs on a small area on Yap and appears to bespreading only slowly. Occasional trees seen planted on Palau don’t seem to be spreading (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

This species is a major problem in the State of Florida (U.S.) and is on the Federal noxious weed list. Planting of this species in the State of Florida (U.S.) is prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Hunsberger, 2001).

Physical: Small seedlings can be hand-pulled. Larger trees usually require herbicide use to prevent resprouting. Follow-up control measures are needed to prevent reinvasion. Any seed capsules must be removed and destroyed.

Chemical: "In remote areas, cut stumps are treated with a wetland-approved imazapyr herbicide mixed 20 percent with water.  Trees can also be girdled with a chainsaw and the cut area treated with imazapyr diluted 50 percent with water. Basally applied herbicides are not effective"  (Randall & Marinelli, 1996).

"Frilling or cut-stump applications of imazapyr effective. In applications to drilled holes, glyphosate was very effective, dicamba and triclopyr fairly effective and 2,4-D ineffective. Saplings sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr at 1 lb/acre"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Biological: Biological control information from the publication "Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States".


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