Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lolium perenne
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Lolium boucheanum Kunth; Lolium marschallii Steven

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hei mai cao

English: English ryegrass, perennial ryegrass

French: ivraie vivace, ray-grass anglais

Japanese: hoso-mugi

Korean: homilpul

Spanish: ballia inglesa, ballico, ballico perenne, césped inglés, raygras, raygras inglés, villico

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial with numerous basal innovations; culms ascending or erect, (3-) 4-9 dm tall, glabrous and smooth.  Basal leaves forming tufts up to 1.5-3 dm tall; sheaths smooth, auricles well-developed, crescent-shaped, up to 1.5 (-2) mm long; ligule entire, 0.5-1.5 mm long; blades narrowly linear, 1-3 (-4) mm wide, glabrous and smooth, sometimes scaberulous.  Spikes erect, narrow, (8-) 10-20 (-25) cm long; spikelets (3-) 5-7 (-11)-flowered, (8-) 9.5-15 (-20) mm long; second glume linear-lanceolate to ovate, (4-) 6-10 (-12) mm long, nearly as long as the spikelet, 7-9-nerved, with 3-5 of the nerves more prominent; lemmas (4-) 5-7 (-8) mm long, glabrous, margins membranous, apex obtuse to acute, awnless; palea nearly as long as lemma, 2-nerved, keeled, the keels slightly winged, ciliate, apex acute.  Caryopsis reddish brown, ellipsoid, strongly flattened, 2.5-3 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1561).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Heath- and shrubland, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands, coastal beaches.  In Europe, this grass is frequently found in grassland, pastures, meadows and disturbed places.  Where invasive, it spreads quickly and forms dense swards that displace native grass and forb species and reduce species richness.  The grass is highly competitive" (Weber, 2003; p. 241).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in grasslands and pastures, 850-2,440 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1561).  In New Caledonia, "se rencontre à présent comme mauvaise herbe peu commune autour de Nouméa"  (MacKee, 1994; p. 60).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, Africa, Asia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Introduced and widely grown as a pasture grass". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 792 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 841 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1561)
Voucher cited: Rock 3179 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 30)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Starr & Martz 001026-2 (BISH), Oppenheimer H50123 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: A. Lau & D. Frohlich 2007040 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: MacKee 16022
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Grown as a pasture species and planted in recreation areas; often on roadsides. "
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Meadows, grassy places, moist roadsides. Commonly cultivated in China.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 340)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 101)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 126)
"Roadsides and tracks, pasture, river flats and banks, waste land and sand dunes; lowland to montane".
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 219)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 17)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Introduced to Fiji in 1934 but did not become established in trial plots (Smith, 1979; p. 391).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out scattered plants.

Chemical:  Spray with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 241).


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This page was created on 26 NOV 2006 and was last updated on 19 MAY 2013.