Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lobularia maritima
(L.) Desv., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Alyssum maritimum (L.) Lam.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiang xue qiu

English: alyssum, sweet alison, sweet alyssum, sweet-Alice

French: alysse corbeille d'argent, lobulaire maritime

Spanish: lágrimas de la virgen

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs perennial, sometimes suffruticose, (5-) 12-24 (-40) cm tall, silvery pubescent. Stems erect, ascending, procumbent, or decumbent, basally branched; pubescent. Leaves linear, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, (1-) 1.5-2.5 (-4) cm x (0.8-) 1.5-3 (-6.5) mm, pubescent, base attenuate, margin entire, apex acute to subobtuse. Racemes many flowered, elongated considerably in fruit. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, straight, slender, (3-) 5-7 (-10) mm, pubescent. Sepals green or purple, oblong, 1.5-1.8 (-2.4) x 0.5-1 mm, pubescent. Petals white or deep purple, obovate or suborbicular, 2-3 x 1.5-2.5 (-3) mm, abruptly narrowed to claw; claw to 1 mm. Filaments white or purple, 1.2-2 mm; anthers ovate, 0.3-0.5 mm. Fruit ovate, elliptic, or orbicular, (2-) 2.3-3 (-4.2) x (1.2-) 1.5-2 (-3) mm; valves convex, pubescent, with a distinct midvein; style 0.4-0.6 mm. Seeds light to reddish brown, 1 per ovary, lenticular, ovate or suborbicular, (1-) 1.2-1.4 (-2) x (0.7-) 0.9-1.1 (-1.5), wingless or with a narrow wing to 0.1 mm wide"  (Flora of China online).

"Short-lived perennial herbs; stems grayish green, ascending or some decumbent, covered with appressed, branched hairs.  Leaves linear to narrowly oblanceolate, 1-3 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide.  Flowers small, fragrant; petals ca 3 mm long; staminal filaments with 2 unequally sized glands at base.  Silicles obovate to suborbicular, 2.5-3.5 mm long, sparsely pubescent.  Seeds 1 per cell, ellipsoid, compressed, 1-1.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 409-411).

Habitat/ecology:  On Kure and Midway Atolls, "naturalized principally in sandy areas"; in Hawai‘i, grown in gardens and sparingly naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 409-411). In New Caledonia, "cultivé dans les jardins; il pousse aussi en adventice" (Jonsell, 1997; p. 102).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Around the Mediterranean; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"An escape from gardens, especially thriving in sandy soil". Voucher cited: L.A.S.J ohnson & A.N. Rodd 1211 (K, NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"An escape from gardens, especially thriving in sandy soil". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1437 (A), G. Uhe 1128 (K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Cuevas, Jaime G./Marticorena, Alicia/Cavieres, Lohengrin A. (2004) (p. 536)
Voucher cited: CONC 158047, JF 172
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 708-709)
Voucher cited: DA 12183
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & S. Holt H30117 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 409-411)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 14)
Common and widespread over almost the entire island.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 409-411)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence 6679 (PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 411)
Voucher cited: Neal s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (pp. 17-18)
Voucher cited: K. Ziegelbauer 20 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Not seen in this survey.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: MacKee 27263
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 28348, MacKee 30687, MacKee 36932
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 76)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 35)
Observed in 1934.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 55)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-10)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 409-411)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-10)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-10)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Widespread garden escape.
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Stony areas, waste grounds, yards; sea level to 2000 m. Cultivated in most of China, naturalized in Gansu, Hebei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 111)
Ornamental.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 436)
"Frequent garden escape, thoroughly naturalised in many areas, especially near the coast."
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Stony areas, waste grounds, yards; sea level to 2000 m.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 118)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 10 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 19 MAY 2013.