Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Limonia acidissima
L., Rutaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Feronia elephantum Corrêa; Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle; Schinus limonia L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: elephant apple, elephant-apple, Indian wood-apple, wood apple

Fijian: vakandra

Hindi: kabeet, kabut, vellam pelam

Habit:  tree

Description: 

Genus: "Often polygamomonoecious tree, the spines axillary, short, straight, the young branchlets and foliage minutely appressed-pilose, soon glabrate; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, often deciduous, the petiole and rachis winged, the rachis segments articulated at bases of leaflets, the leaflets 5 or 7, opposite, subsessile, the blades ovate to obovate, pellucid-glandular, entire to crenulate; inflorescences axillary or terminal, loosely paniculate, the flowers perfect or male by abortion, (4-) 5 (-6)-merous; calyx small, flat, dentate, caducous; petals spreading, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, imbricate in bud, accrescent during anthesis; disk short, finely pilose; stamens usually twice as many as petals, the filaments dilated, copiously tomentose and coherent proximally, subulate at apex, the anthers large, linear-oblong, basifixed; ovary globose, incompletely 4-6 (-7)-locular (empty in male flowers), becoming 1-locular with parietal placentae, the ovules very numerous, borne in several series at angles of incomplete ovary walls, the style short, thick, attenuate, the stigma oblong-fusiform; fruits large, globose, with a woody shell, unilocular, the parietal placentae  bearing numerous seeds surrounded by gumlike pulp, the seeds oblong, compressed, the testa thin, pilose." (Smith, 1985)

Species:  "A spiny, deciduous tree to about 9 m high... The flowers are dull red or reddish, the fruits brown or whitish, up to 8 cm in diameter, with a hard, woody rind and pinkish, aromatic pulp" (Smith, 1985; pp. 526-527).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "occasionally cultivated and sometimes naturalized in waste places" (Smith, 1985; pp. 526-527).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  India and Ceylon, but now cultivated in southeastern Asia, Malesia and elsewhere, and sometimes naturalized (Smith, 1985; pp. 526-527).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 526-527)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 526-527)
Voucher cited: DA 16405
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 526-527)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 18 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 6 JAN 2008.