Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ligustrum sinense
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Oleaceae


High risk, Score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment) Ligustrum indicum (Lour.) Merr.; Ligustrum microcarpum Kaneh. & Sasaki

Chinese: xiao la

English: Chinese privet, hedge privet, small-leaf privet

"Shrubs or small trees 2-4(-7) m, deciduous. Branchlets terete, villous, pubescent, pilose, puberulent, to glabrescent. Petiole 2-8 mm; leaf blade ovate, oblong, elliptic to lanceolate, or suborbicular, 2-7(-13) x 1-3(-5.5) cm, densely villous to sparsely pubescent or glabrous, papery to somewhat leathery, base cuneate to subrounded, apex acute to acuminate, sometimes obtuse and retuse; primary veins 4-6(or 7) on each side of midrib, impressed or plane adaxially, somewhat raised abaxially. Panicles terminal or axillary, 4-11 x 3-8 cm, with or without leaf at base. Pedicel 1-5 mm. Calyx 1-1.5 mm, glabrous or pubescent. Corolla 3.5-5.5 mm; tube slightly shorter than lobes. Stamens reaching apex of corolla lobes or exceeding that; anthers ca. 1 mm. Fruit subglobose, 5-8 mm in diameter"  (Flora of China online). Privets are extremely aggressive and can form dense, impenetrable thickets that crowd out desirable plants. They are prolific seed producers.  "Forests and woodland, coastal cliffs.  In the native range, this shrub grows in valleys, along streams, in mixed forests and ravines from 200-2,700 m elevation.  Several varieties are widely used as ornamentals.  The shrub is a short-lived forest pioneer species establishing in disturbed sites.  Where invasive, it forms impenetrable thickets and thus crows out native vegetation.  It displaces the native shrub layer of invaded forests and prevents regeneration of native species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 238).  "Seeks out the more fertile soils of gullies, creeklines and rainforest edges, and watercourses affected by urban runoff; shades out native plants, transforms the habitat into one dominated by weeds"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

In Australia, Ligustrum sinense naturalizes along fencelines and on the margins of rainforest (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 174).  In New Zealand, "forest margins, waste places, particularly roadsides and cliffs in and near towns and cities"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 880).  In China, "mixed forests, valleys, along streams, thickets, woods, ravines; 200-2700 m"  (Flora of China online). Seed. Seeds are distributed by frugiferous birds (Carr et al., 1992, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 238-239).  "One plant may produce up to a million seeds, which are spread into bushland by birds, and are also washed down waterways. Small-leaf Privet seedlings grow like a carpet in creekline silt deposits"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland). China, Taiwan, Laos, Vietnam; naturalized in southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand and southeastern United States (GRIN).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 5, 11)
Ligustrum sp.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 174)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"A native of China which has also escaped from cultivation and is proving a serious weed in places". Vouchers cited: A.C. Beauglehole, 5848 (CANB, MEL), J. Pickard 1411 (NSW), J. Pickard 3458 (NSW), J. Pickard 3462 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"A native of China which has also escaped from cultivation and is proving a serious weed in places". Voucher cited: W.R. Sykes NI 227 (CHR)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 136)
Vouchers cited: DA 9809, DA 12240
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 209)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: T. Tunison s.n. (BISH 605525)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David/Flynn, Tim (1999) (p. 5)
Vouchers cited: D. Lorence, T. Flynn, S. Joe, F. Kraus, K. Reinard, J. Plews 8149 (BISH, K, MO, PTBG, US), T. Flynn & D. Lorence 6132 (BISH, K, PTBG)
Profusely naturalized in Koke‘e State Park.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1944) (voucher ID: BISH 61057)
Taxon name on voucher: Ligustrum sinense Lour.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 108)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 1669 (spontané), MacKee 24853 (cult.)
Spontané
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Ligustrum sp. Single cultivated plant in house yard.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Ligustrum sp.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 174)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Often cultivated as a hedge, widely naturalized, especially on margins of rainforest and along fence lines in cleared areas."
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 174)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed forests, valleys, along streams, thickets, woods, ravines; 200-2700 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 243)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 880)
Also present:  L. ovalifolium Hassk., "Forest remnant margins, roadside banks, and waste places" and L. vulgare L., "Usually on waste land, roadside banks and in and around modified forest remnants".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 55)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed forests, valleys, along streams, thickets, woods, ravines; 200-2700 m.
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Additional information on control of Ligustrum spp. from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical: Small plants may be hand pulled; older individuals need to be dug out.

Chemical: Foliar treatment of actively growing plants with glyphosate herbicide. Treat cut stumps to prevent resprouting.

"Foliar applications of glyphosate effective. Katie Cassel (Kōke‘e Museum) reported privet was susceptible to cut-stump applications of triclopyr or glyphosate.  Stems <0.5 inch diameter susceptible to basal bark application of 20% triclopyr ester in oil.  Larger stems must be notched or frilled.  HAVO staff report control with triclopyr amine at 10% of product in water applied to cut stumps  (Chris Zimmer, HAVO).  The manufacturer reported that metsulfuron was highly effective when applied to the foliage of actively growing plants at a rate of 5 grams per 10 liters of water (spray to wet the foliage)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Stump swab (all year round): glyphosate (250ml/L) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant). 
2. Bore and fill (all year round): 1 hole /20 cm of trunk, 2 g/hole. 
3. Frilling:  With a sharp chisel or axe, make a deep cut into the sapwood at regular intervals around the base of the tree, taking care not to ring-bark the plant.  Immediately saturate the cuts with metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant).
4. Injection method: Holes are drilled sloping into the sapwood at regular intervals around the tree. Immediately saturate the holes with metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant) or undiluted Tordon Brushkiller, using a sheep drench pack with spraygun. 
5. Spray spring-autumn): metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L) + penetrant.
Untreated stumps resprout quickly. Bared areas reseed profusely.  Follow up 6-monthly, easiest to spot during spring flowering. Replant bared areas to minimise seedling growth"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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