Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Leucas cephalotes
(Roth) Spreng., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Leucas capitata Desf.; Phlomis cephalotes Roth

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: tou xu bai rong cao

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stout annual herb to 1 m high, the branchlets scaberulous with spreading hairs; leaves petiolate, the petioles to 15 mm long, the blades membranaceous, 5-10 x 2-4 cm, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, subacute at apex, crenate-serrate at margin, more or less pubescent on both surfaces; flowering verticils often large, to 5 cm broad, terminal, globose, surrounded by imbricate, membranaceous bracts, these elliptic- to linear-lanceolate, 8-15 x 2-5 mm, awned at apex, ciliate at margin; calyx tubular, about 2 cm long, the tube slightly curved, membranaceous, usually soft-pubescent, the mouth oblique, long-pubescent, the teeth short-subulate, subequal, 1-2 mm long, scabrid; corolla 20-30 mm long, the tube to 20 mm long, the upper lip to 5 mm long, villose, the lower lip about twice as long as upper lip, the median lobe spreading, subtruncate; nutlets 2-3 mm long, obovoid-oblong, rounded at apex, smooth, brown"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 235, 237).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "reported to be rather common locally in wet places and at times on cultivated land near sea level" (Smith, 1991; pp. 235, 237).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Afghanistan to eastern India and Bangladesh, found elsewhere as a naturalized or possibly cultivated plant" (Smith, 1991; pp. 235, 237).


Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 235, 237)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 658, greenwood 658A

Comments:  Reported invasive in Myanmar (Waterhouse, 1993; p. 141).

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This page was created on 29 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 19 OCT 2006.