Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Leptochloa fusca
(L.) Kunth, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.; Leptochloa malabarica (L.) Veldkamp; Leptochloa uninervia (J. Presl) Hitchc. & Chase [= Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia]

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shuang fu cao

English: bearded sprangletop, beetle grass, brown beetle grass, littoral sprangletop, Malabar sprangletop, Mexican sprangletop, sprangletop, swamp grass

Spanish: paja gris

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Perennial. Culms decumbent; 60-150 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 3-8 mm long; acute. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 25-55 cm long; 3-5 mm wide; stiff; mid-green and grey-green. Leaf-blade midrib widened. Leaf-blade surface scabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 10-30; borne along a central axis; erect; straight; unilateral; 7-15 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 15-30 cm long. Rhachis semiterete. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; lax. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled, or sessile. Pedicels filiform; 0.5-1.5 mm long.  Spikelets comprising 6-11 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 8-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes eventually visible between lemmas. Floret callus evident; pubescent; obtuse; disarticulating obliquely. Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 2.1-4.6 mm long; 0.6-0.7 times length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute, or acuminate. Upper glume oblong; 3.3-7.4 mm long; 1-1.3 times length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute; mucronate. Florets: Fertile lemma oblong; 3.2-5.9 mm long; membranous; dark green, or grey; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein ciliate; hairy below. Lemma lateral veins close to margins. Lemma margins pilose; hairy below. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; mucronate, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; 0.3-1.6 mm long overall. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels scabrous. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on flanks. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Flower: Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3; 0.2-2.7 mm long. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; flattened; concavo-convex; 1.6-1.8 mm long"  (GrassBase).

ssp. uninervia (J. Presl) Hitchc. & Chase:  "Annuals; culms tufted, decumbent or erect, 7.5-13  dm tall, branching above base.  Sheaths chartaceous, only loosely clasping culms when older, persistent, glabrous, slightly scabrous, apex prolonged into auricles; ligule 1.5-2 mm long, membranous, truncate, margins entire but often frayed; blades linear, flat or involute, 6-45 cm long, 3-6 mm wide, slightly scabrous.  Inflorescences paniculate, oblong to ovoid, 10-35 cm long, racemes numerous on an elongate axis, branches usually appressed to ascending, rarely spreading; spikelets appressed to the branches, 5-9-flowered, 3-8 mm long, overlapping by 1/3 their length; glumes unequal, ovate to oblong, glabrous, distinctly 1-nerved, the nerve scabrous, apex truncate to acute, finely ciliate, mucronate, first glume 0.8-1.4 mm long, second glume 1.6-2 mm long, occasionally with lateral lobes; lemmas pale green, oblong, 2-2.5 mm long, 3-nerved, margins membranous and appressed-pilose, apex rounded to acute, finely fimbriate, ± mucronate; palea pale green, elliptic to obovate, 2-2.5 mm long, 2-nerved, margins membranous and appressed-pilose, apex acute.  Caryopsis pale brown, obovate, 1-1.2 mm long, dorsally compressed"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1558).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in wet, disturbed places such as along irrigation ditches and in shallow, standing water, 0-580 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1558).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropics and subtropics worldwide (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1558)
Ssp. uninervia
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1558)
Ssp. uninervia
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 21)
Ssp. uninervia. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40121 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 29)
As. Leptochloa uninervia (K. Presl) Hitchc. & Chase
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1558)
Ssp. uninervia
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1558)
Ssp. uninervia; voucher cited: Herbst 458 (BISH)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (2000) (p. 11)
As. Leptochloa uninervia (K. Presl) Hitchc. & Chase; voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990507-3
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Shallow water, marshy, sometimes brackish ground. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Shallow water, marshy, sometimes brackish ground.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
As Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 11 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.