Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lepidium sativum
L., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia du xing cai

English: garden cress, pepperwort, tongue cress, town cress

French: cresson alénois, cresson des jardins, passerage cutivée

Spanish: berro de huerta, cresón, mastuerzo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs annual, (10-) 20-80 (-100) cm tall. Stems erect, simple or branched, sparsely crisped pilose above. Basal leaves not rosulate; petiole 1-4 cm; leaf blade variable in shape, 1- or 2-pinnatifid or -pinnatisect, 2-8 (-10) x  1-3 (-5) cm; ultimate lobes ovate or oblong, margin dentate, apex acute. Cauline leaves petiolate; leaf blade similar to basal ones but less divided, with 1-4 lateral lobes on each side of midvein; uppermost leaves subsessile, linear, margin entire. Fruiting pedicels suberect, appressed to rachis, or ascending, straight, 1.5-4 (-6) mm, terete or slightly flattened, glabrous. Sepals oblong, 1-1.8 x  0.5-0.8 mm, glabrous or pubescent abaxially. Petals white or lavender, spatulate or obovate, 2.5-3.5 (-4) x  0.7-1.4 mm, base attenuate. Stamens 6; filaments 1.5-2 mm; anthers oblong, 0.4-0.5 mm. Fruit oblong-ovate or elliptic, (4-) 5-6 (-7) x  3-4.5 (-5.5) mm, base rounded, margin and apex broadly winged, apex emarginate; wings 1-1.5 mm at apex; apical notch 0.2-0.5 mm; style 0.2-0.5 (-0.8) mm, free from wings, included in or rarely exserted from apical notch. Seeds reddish brown, oblong, 2-2.6 x  1-1.3 mm, wingless; cotyledons incumbent, 3-lobed"  (Flora of China online).

"Annual with a single, erect stem 20-50 cm, branched in region of inflorescence, glabrous or pilose. Basal leaves lyrate-pinnate, long-petiolate, soon withering. Cauline leaves 1 or 2 x pinnate, less incised than basal, with oblong-linear segments; uppermost, linear, entire. Flowering branches from the lower leaf axils up to the top of stem. Petals white or lilac, 2-3 x 1 mm, oblong-spathulate. Fruiting pedicels ascending, 2-3.5 mm. Siliculae broadly elliptical or orbicular-ovate, 5-6 x 4-5 mm, distinctly emarginate" (Davis, 1965; p. 281).

Habitat/ecology:  Waste and cultivated places (Davis, 1965; p. 281).  "Gardens, old fields, vacant lots, disturbed areas, railroad embankments, waste grounds, roadsides, cultivated"  (Flora of North America online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Egypt and Ethiopia through the middle east to Pakistan; widely cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 184)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated or naturalized; near sea level to 1700 m. Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Jilin, Shandong, Xinjiang, Xizang.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 184)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 432)
Casual garden escape and in linen flax crops.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)


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This page was created on 22 OCT 2002 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.