Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Leonurus japonicus
Houtt., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S. Y. Hu; Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet; Leonurus sibiricus auct. pl.; Stachys artemisia Lour.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yi mu cao

English: Chinese motherwort, honeyweed, motherwort

Maori (Cook Islands): vavai tara

Tuamotuan: titona

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs annual or biennial. Taproots with dense, fibrous rootlets. Stems erect, 30-120 cm, retrorse strigose, nodes and angles densely strigose. Petiole of stem leaves 0.5-3 cm, narrowly winged at apex; lower stem leaf blades ovate, base broadly cuneate, 3-palmatipartite; lobes oblong-rhombic to ovate, 2.5-6 x 1.5-4 cm, pinnately divided, adaxially strigose, abaxially pilose, glandular; mid stem leaf blade rhombic, palmatipartite, lobes oblong-linear, base narrow cuneate. Verticillasters 8-15-flowered, 2-2.5 cm in diameter; floral leaves subsessile, linear to linear-lanceolate, 3-12 x 2-8 mm, entire or dentate; bracteoles spiny, shorter than calyx, ca. 5 mm, appressed puberulent. Flowers sessile. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 6-8 mm, appressed puberulent; teeth broadly triangular, 2-3 mm, apex spinescent. Corolla white or reddish to purplish red, 1-1.2 cm, villous; tube ca. 6 mm, inconspicuously scaly annulate inside; upper lip straight, concave, oblong, ca. 7 x 4 mm, margin entire, ciliate; lower lip slightly shorter, base sparsely scaly; middle lobe obcordate, base constricted, margin membranous, apex emarginate; lateral lobes ovate. Filaments sparsely scaly. Nutlets brownish, oblong, triquetrous, ca. 2.5 mm, base cuneate, apex truncate, smooth (Flora of China Online).

"In a recent note, Harley & Paton (2001)* pointed out that the name L. sibiricus, used for a widespread ruderal weed, must correctly be applied to a different species.  Although the Russian botanical literature noted this decades ago and took up the name L. japonicus, taxonomists elsewhere have continued to use L. sibiricus inappropriately.  The name L. sibiricus has been widely used in Hawaiian and Pacific botanical literature and the correction is here noted" (Staples et al., 2003).

*Harley, R. & A. Paton.   2001.  Leonurus japonicus Houtt. (Labiatae): the correct name for a common tropical weed.  Kew Bull.  56:243-244.

Habitat/ecology:  In China (native), "Sunny areas; 0-3400 m"  (Flora of China Online).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in relatively dry areas, especially pastures, 40-600 m elevation" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 803-804).  In Niue, "locally fairly common now in waste places in and near the villages"  (Sykes, 1970; p. 103). In Tonga, "occasional as a dooryard and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 234). In New Caledonia, "répandu comme mauvaise herbe, surtout aux îles, mais rarement abondante" (MacKee, 1994; p. 68).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Temperate and tropical Asia, widely naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 75)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81937)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 87)
Voucher: Flynn 7041 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 150646)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 365)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus japonicus Houtt.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 92)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 98)
Voucher: Flynn 7048 (PTBG)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 370)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus japonicus Houtt.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 150647)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 150648)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 128)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 123
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 150645)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 128)
Voucher cited: Leland et al. 17
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1909) (voucher ID: BISH 150643)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10195 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642079)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5559 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553161)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 803-805)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 803-805)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 803-805)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Wysong 754 (BISH). The plants that were found were pulled.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 803-805)
Voucher cited: Faurie 891 (BISH)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Pott introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Veillon 3748
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 827 (Z), MacKee 5202
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 515 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 218)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Grunow s.n. s.loc. (W), Schlechter 14898, Franc 1372 s.loc., Däniker 16 (Z), MacKee 11858
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 654880)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Déméné in MacKee 19735
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 103)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169932, CHR 169933
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 103)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9683 (BISH)
"Occasional along roadsides and in waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. Voucher specimen submitted for determination.)
Voucher: BMW 7076 (BISH, CHR, BRI)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
As Leonurus sibiricus L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 412)
Widely scattered in waste places in and about towns; certainly introduced.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41182)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 232)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus japonicus
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Soakai 308
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 218)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 38)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 338, Soakai 398, Soakai 939 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 234)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15423
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22275)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41263)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41358)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 150641)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 618347)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 38)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 61, Soakai 166, Soakai 621
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 234)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15119
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41305)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 150640)
Taxon name on voucher: Leonurus sibiricus L.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Sunny areas; 0-3400 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 236)
In wasteland, along roadside or near villages.
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaya
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 54)
var. albiflorus (Migo) Y.C. Zhu, cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Sunny areas; 0-3400 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 31 AUG 2010.