Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lapsana communis
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Other Latin names:  Lapsana grandiflora M. Bieb; Lapsana intermedia M. Bieb; Lapsana ramosissima Boiss.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: common nipplewort, hawk's-beard, nipplewort

French: lampsane commune

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus:  "Slender annual or perennial herbs with milky sap; stems usually unbranched in lower part, branched above.  Leaves simple, alternate, entire or lobed.  Heads several to numerous in corymbose or paniculate inflorescences, each head on a long peduncle, florets all of ray type; involucral bracts in 2 series, outer ones few in number and small, inner ones ca. 8, subequal, keeled at base; receptacle naked; florets 8-5 per head, perfect, rays yellow, rarely white; pappus absent.  Achenes fusiform, slightly compressed, with ca. 20 longitudinal ribs".

Species:  "Hirsute to subglabrous annual herbs 1.5-15 dm tall.  Leaves ovate, 2.5-10 cm long, 2-7 cm wide, with a few large teeth or lobes especially toward base, margins dentate, petiolate, becoming sessile above.  Involucre 5-8 mm high, inner bracts linear-oblong, outer bracts ovate to lanceolate.  Achenes 2-5 (-9) mm long, outer ones much longer than inner ones, 18-30-nerved, but 5-6 of them more conspicuous, glabrous"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 331).

"Annual herb. Stems erect, branched above, finely ribbed, with fine crisped eglandular hairs especially below, 15-100-(150) cm tall. Leaves glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy; margins ciliate. Rosette and lower stem leaves petiolate, lyrate-pinnatifid; terminal lobe large, broadly ovate to deltoid to orbicular, bluntly dentate, (1.5)-3-8 x (1.5)-3-8 cm; lateral lobes in (0)-1-3 pairs, the distal pair = or < width of terminal lobe, the proximal pairs successively smaller, all dentate. Upper leaves undivided, becoming sessile, linear-lanceolate to ovate, sharply dentate to serrate, smaller than lower leaves. Capitula in diffuse corymbose panicles; peduncles > 2x length of involucre. Involucre 5-8 mm long; bracts glabrous except for ciliate apex, strongly veined or keeled, erecto-patent; outer bracts 1-1.5 mm long. Florets few, c. 1.5x length of involucre; corolla yellow; tube < ligule. Achenes fusiform, glabrous, pale, c. 20-ribbed, 3-5 mm long; pappus 0"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 337).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in relatively wet, disturbed areas such as disturbed wet forest, 950-3,230 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 331).  In New Zealand, "roadsides, tracksides, forest margins and under introduced trees, waste land, cultivated land"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 337).  In North America, "Mesic woods, sheltered waste areas, roadsides, stream banks; 50-1900 m. It is aggressively weedy and often found in shady disturbed sites"  (Flora of North America online).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:   Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m. Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe and southern and western Asia; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 554)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 554)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 331)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 331)
Voucher cited: Brigham et al. s.n. (BISH)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 337)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Grows on roadsides and cultivated areas".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
Belov, Michail (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 337)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Ont., Que., Sask.
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 9 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.