Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Lantana camara
L., Verbenaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 32 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ma ying dan

English: lantana, red sage, shrub verbena, white sage, wild sage, yellow sage

Fijian: kauboica, kaumboitha, lanitana, mbona ra mbulumakau, mbonambulumakau, tokalau, waiwai

Filipino: bahug-bahug, sapinit

French: caca martin, corbeille d'or, galabert, lantana, vieille fille

Hawaiian: la‘au kalakala, lakana, lanakana, mikinolia hihiu, mikinolia hohono, mikinolia kukū

I-Kiribati: te kaibuaka

Kosraean: ros fonacni

Mangarevan: tara koa

Maori (Cook Islands): rānatāna, tātarāmoa, tātarāmoa, tātarāmoa, tātarāmoa papa‘ā, tūtae ‘oro‘enua

Marshallese: lantõna

Nauruan: migiroa

Pohnpeian: landana, randana, rantana, tuhke suwed, tukasuweth

Samoan: lõtana, lõtana

Spanish: cuasquito, supirosa

Tahitian: taratara hamoa, tatara moa, tatara moa, tātarāmoa

Tongan: talatala

Tuvaluan: kai puaka, kaipuaka

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Erect or with branches rambling, prickly or not; leaves ovate, hispid, commonly 4-8 cm long, 2-5.5 cm wide, on petioles 1-3 cm long, blades serrate, stiff chartaceous, spicy-pungent if rubbed; spikes headlike or corymbose; flowers crowded, youngest ones central, pale, older flowers orange, oldest ones red (or white); corolla tube pubescent internally, 10-12 mm long; limb about 8 mm across, with darker eye; drupe purple-black, 5-6 mm thick, slightly juicy, the pyrene with an air-cavity between the two cells" (Stone, 1970; p. 506).

"Arbuste pérenne atteignant 2 à 6 m de hauteur, parfois lianescent, reconnaissable à ses tiges épineuses, ses petites feuilles rugueuses à marges dentées, ses inflorescences composées de fleurs rouges, oranges, jaunes, roses et blanches, et ses petits fruits charnus, violets à noirs à maturité" (Meyer, 2008; p. 23).

There are many varieties and color forms.

Habitat/ecology:  "It is a weed of cultivated land, fence lines, pastures, rangelands, and waste places.  It thrives in dry and wet regions and often grows in valleys, mountain slopes, and coastal areas.  The plant flowers all the year in many warm countries.  It is somewhat shade-tolerant and, therefore, can become the dominant understory in open forests or in tropical tree crops.  In pastures it forms dense thickets which shade out and encroach upon desirable pasture plants.  With time it can form pure stands over large areas, thereby rendering the land useless for pasture.  It is especially pernicious in steep, mountainous, rocky rangelands"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 299, 302).  "A major weed of pastures, roadsides, wasteland and plantations, but is not a problem in cultivation.  Lantana grows best in moist, but not wet areas where the soil is of medium fertility and there is plenty of light.  It also tolerates moderate shade"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 17).

Widely cultivated as an ornamental, from which it escapes as a weed.  This thorny shrub forms dense understory vegetation that crowds out and inhibits establishment of other species.  Allelopathic substances are produced by shoots and roots (Achhereddy, in press).  Grows well in dry areas but also present in wetter habitats.  Tolerates moderate shade.

Elevations to 1500 m in French Polynesia.  In Fiji, "an abundantly naturalized pernicious weed from near sea level to about 900 m in thickets, plantations, and canefields, on the edges of forest, and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 172-173).  In Hawai‘i, "an extremely serious weed of mesic forest, diverse mesic forest, dry shrubland, and other low elevation, dry, disturbed habitats, 2-1,070 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1320). Arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 164). "In the Galapagos, it has taken over the nesting grounds of the dark-rumped petrels on Floreana Islands, making it difficult for the birds to enter and exit their burrows (Luis Ortis, Charles Darwin Research Station, Galapagos, Ecuador)  (Motooka et al., 2003).

In New Guinea, "mainly a weed of pasture land, forming dense thickets if uncontrolled" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 158). In New Caledonia, "devient vite un fléau sur tous les terrains non-ultrabasiques, envahissant cultures et surtout pâturages. Se répand aux îles où toutefois il reste dispersé sans constituer des fourrés denses. Semble aujourd'hui en légère régression, peut-être à cause d'introductions successives depuis 1909 d'insectes qui l'attaquent. Cultivé parfois dans les jardins" (MacKee, 1994; p. 139); "Devient vite un fléau sur tous les terrains non-ultrabasiques, envahissant cultures et surtout pâturages; du littoral jusqu'aux sommets. Se repand aux îles Loyauté où toutefois il reste dispersé sans constituer des fourrés denses. Semble aujourd'hui en légère régression, peut-être à cause d'introductions successives depuis 1909 d'insectes qui l'attaquent. Son extension massive semble notamment résulter du Merle des Moluques qui consomme les baies et rejette avec ses fientes les graines non digérées (dans le texte)" (Gargominy et al., 1996; p. 383).

Propagation:  The fruit is dispersed by frugivorous birds and rodents. It is capable of surviving all but the hottest fires, regenerating from basal shoots.  Plants are commonly spread by the dumping of garden waste.  "Stems lying on moist soil will layer"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

"Ses petits fruits sont activement disséminés par les oiseaux frugivores, ses feuilles et graines sont connues pour entraîner des désordres gastro-intestinaux pour les moutons et les bovins, ses racines produisent des substances allélopathiques (toxiques pour les autres plantes). L’espèce peut se développer sur des sols pauvres, en pleine lumière ou en semi-obscurité, survivre aux feux et se multiplier végétativement" (Meyer, 2008; p. 23).

Native range:  Central America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 5, 13)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 208)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
"A native of tropical America which has escaped from gardens and become a notorious and widespread noxious weed". Voucher cited: A.N. Rodd 3602 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Ziesing, P. (1997) (pp. 28-29)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"A native of tropical America which has escaped from gardens and become a notorious and widespread noxious weed. Common". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1106 (K); K.S. Harley 1 (BRI); 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 23-24, 29)
"Outre les plants cultivés dans le village, nous avons observé des fourrés denses mais très localisés à la sortie du village de Hanga Roa et en direction de Vinapu, sur les pentes du cratère du Rano Kau, en bordure de route à Vaitea où l’espèce grimpe aux arbres, en bordure de route à Anakena, et enfin dans l’ancien jardin botanique de Vaitea où il a envahi une surface d’environ 1 hectare" (Meyer, 2008; p. 23).
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 554)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
also var. aculeata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22219)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 101)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 101)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 10)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588312)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 409986)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 88)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81924)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 187400)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 187372)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fano Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633322)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 187363)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 652929)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 25)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 64)
Not located in this survey.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 103)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2435 (US), Takamatsu 1029 (BISH), Takamatsu 1100 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 140)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3920 (NY), A. Dores 47 (NY, BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58485 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1897a (BISH), S. Perlman 21461 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 187362)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 187377)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438223)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511405)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 45701)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81644)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 187371)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588140)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 652952)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 172-173)
Voucher cited: Smith 7501
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 187384)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 172-173)
Voucher cited: DA 8921
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 172-173)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 575, DA 10784, Smith 341
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 187380)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 172-173)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 575A, Degener 15026, DA 11446, DA 10736, DA 11248, DA 3697, DA 9948, Parks 20884, DA 10786, Smith 6026, Krauss 413
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 33620)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 33621)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 33622)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 187381)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1943) (voucher ID: BISH 187382)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 187383)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 187385)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 22)
Observed
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 120 (GH), St. John 14510 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood 6420 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27977)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12032 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 658578)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 152)
var. aculeata (L.) Moldenke
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11739 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 648837)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 295)
Voucher cited: Florence 5016
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
University of California (2006)
"Aggressive weed, favors dry scarps, frequently found with Psidium guajava (Guava)".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4716 (PAP), J. Florence 8233 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 110 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 200 (PAP), J.-C. Jolinon 1396 (PAP); var. aculeata (C. Linnaeus) H.N. Moldenke: J. Florence 2209 (PAP), J. Florence 9016 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22326)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492568)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 493169)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 574240)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Sachet 944 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 295)
Voucher cited: BRY 24845
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 295)
Voucher cited: BRY 25974
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2792 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493171)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-C. Jolinon 1269 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3003 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493172)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tuamotu Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5992 (PAP), J. Florence 6153 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 545584)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 545611)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 506)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4759 (GUAM), Stone 5032 (GUAM), Stone 3981 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
also var. aculeata
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 187369)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 187370)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 652928)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 652930)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 29)
Apparently extirpated.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 285)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 30)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 30)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 51-52)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54777 (US, HAW, K), Claplp P-71-8 (US)
Persisting.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Orona (Hull) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 51-52)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54804 (US)
Persisting.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Voucher: Imada 2003-151 (BISH 697763)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697763)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 33056)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Nonouti Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll   Moul, Edwin T. (1957) (p. 20)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 453046)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 187375)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 424153)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 103)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 12)
"Occasional; few patches around houses, some escaping into ruderal areas and less cultivated areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 37)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 421833)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 132)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A23)
Uncommon; growing ruderally near airport and old buildings, Mili. Voucher 0725201003 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0516200906
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 205-206)
var. aculeata. Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58599 (US), Fosberg 58798 (US), Scully 101N (US), Thaman & Manner 42 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9563 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19313
New Caledonia
Récifs D'Entrecasteaux (D'Entrecasteaux Reefs)
Île Surprise introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: Boulet in MacKee 31449
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: MacKee 27242
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45943
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Drylands, savannas"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 383)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Vouchers cited: Germain s.n., Grunow s.n. (W), Raoul s.n., Cribs 959, MacKee 7798, MacKee 29821; f. alba (Mold.) Mold., voucher cited: MacKee 34906
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 10850)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: Baumann 13751
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 213-214)
Voucher cited: CHR 169880
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 49)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 11)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 899)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara appr. var. aculeata (L.) Mold.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
also var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 11)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 187364)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649812)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 236)
also var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 81645)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 81651)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 81674)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 187376)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 567914)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1969) (voucher ID: BNM 1452)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 837)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 836)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 838)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara appr. var. aculeata (L.) Mold.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22311)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 11)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 473)
Introduced as an ornamental; it readily becomes naturalized.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island introduced
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 83)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 158)
Formerly cultivated, now a proclaimed noxious weed.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 62)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 380)
In the settled areas at low and medium altitudes, occurring in thickets and waste places.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Oeno Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 103)
"Forest, fernland".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 103)
"Forest, fernland".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 48)
Vouchers cited: R. A. Young 19, St. John 15039, J. P. Chapin 937
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 697 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10749 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 643371)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Aleipata Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1983)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28833)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 187388)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 187389)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 187390)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 416652)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511222)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 84)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 165)
Dominant invader.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘afeva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640310)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 230)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15426
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 187387)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 81)
Vouchers cited: Crosby 292, Soakai 236, Soakai 423
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 230)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15002
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 187386)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699120)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara var. aculeata
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3028)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3912)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 611038)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 1000764)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Woodroffe 166 (CHR)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1320)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-10)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1903) (voucher ID: BISH 187378)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 416651)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Malakula (Malekula) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 509053)
Taxon name on voucher: Lantana camara L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 83)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 11, 38)
Très localement naturalisé à Wallis et ne subsiste qu’en lisière de piste et de route.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
"Potential invader". Gardens, secondary vegetation.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 301)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 32)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 32)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (pp. 173, 179)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 231)
In thickets and open field.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 207)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 207)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 207)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
var. camara and var. aculeata (L.) Moldenke
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 77, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 228)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1274)
"Roadsides and waste places in and around settlements; cultivation escape often spread by birds".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 302)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 207)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 53)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 77, 77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Rivers, Julie (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Grande Comore (Njazidja) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 62)
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 302)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7277 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 156)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3124 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A major invasive species in the Galápagos Islands. A serious problem on Tonga. A pest plant in Australia, South Africa and India among many other locations. On New Zealand noxious weed list and banned from sale in that country. Invasive on La Reunion Island and Rodrigues Island (Indian Ocean).  It is listed as a "weed of national significance" in Australia.

Many occurrences in Micronesia appear to be localized, probably as a result of introduced and natural biological control agents. However, it is very prevalent on Saipan and Tinian (Space & Falanruw, 1999). It was reported to be once present on Rota but eradicated. It was not seen on a survey of the island (Space et al., 2000).

On Niue, the plant seems to be under control of the introduced biological agents (Space & Flynn, 2000).

Lantana is widespread on ‘Atiu, Cook Islands, but is a minor component of the vegetation on Rarotonga, possibly as a result of biocontrol agents (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Control: 

Physical: Small plants may be hand pulled; older individuals need to be dug out. Burning without follow-up treatments is ineffective and may increase populations.

"Controlled by cultivation and uprooting.  Suppressed by slashing and occasional (every few years) hot fires, especially if combined with vigorous, well-adapted and not over-grazed pastures, preferably of tall grasses and climbing legumes" (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 26-27).

"Anecdotal evidence suggests trampling during intensive grazing is effective because of the brittle wood of lantana.  However, annual mowing is not effective in removing lantana.  Goats will control lantana (An Peischel).  Isolated plants can be controlled by grubbing or pulling with care to remove all lateral roots.  Burning without follow-up treatments is ineffective and may increase populations"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"La lutte manuelle est difficile en raison des tiges épineuses et des racines pivotantes. La lutte mécanique est possible sur de grandes surfaces planes (gyrobroyage)" (Meyer, 2008; p. 23).

Chemical:  "Susceptible to:  1) translocated herbicides, including glyphosate, 2,4-D, fosamine, dichlorprop and triclopyr at standard rates; glyphosate is most effective as an overall foliar spray.  Probably susceptible to residual herbicides, including hexazinone and bromacil at standard rates."  (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 26-27)

"Very sensitive to glyphosate applied foliarly. Metsulfuron may be effective if application is timed before annual droughts. Triclopyr ester applied basal bark effective but foliar application of triclopyr ineffective. Foliar applications of 2,4-D and dicamba ineffective; picloram effective. Soil application of tebuthiuron effective at 3 lb/acre; hexazinone in "hot spot" soil application effective. Kline and Duquenel  reported moderate control with triclopyr ester at 10% of product applied basal bark and triclopyr amine at 50% of product applied cut-surface. Imazapyr at 10% of product applied cut-surface and at 1% applied foliarly provided good control. Glyphosate applied basal bark with the surfactant Quiksorb® (Monsanto) looked promising in trials in Kona and Kaua‘i but erratic in Hilo, a wetter site" (Motooka et al., 2003).

Brochure on the use of herbicides to control lantana from the Government of Queensland.

"La lutte chimique (traitement des souches par un herbicide à base de triclopyr ou pulvérisation sur les feuilles avec du glyphosate ou du picloram) reste la seule méthode efficace sur de petites surfaces" (Meyer, 2008; p. 23).

Biological: Biological control agents are available for this species and are very often effective. Considerable work has been done on biological control of this species in Micronesia which is summarized by Denton et al. (1991). See also Muniappan and Viraktamath (1986), Muniappan (1989) and Muniappan et al. (1996). See also Julien (1992; pp. 89-108, 138-141) and Waterhouse and Norris (1987) for a summary of world-wide biological control efforts.

Epinotia lantana (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidate) introduced to Pohnpei and Yap and exerting some control. Spread to Palau. Established on the Marshall Islands but effect unknown. Spread to Guam, Saipan and Tinian. With Lantanophaga pusillidactyla causes 70-80&percent; decline in berry production. Diastema tigris Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) introduced to Pohnpei but establishment unknown. Hypena strigata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) released on Pohnpei and Yap. Established on Yap. Establishment unknown on Pohnpei. Released on Guam, not effective. Present on Aguijan, Saipan and Tinian. Effects unknown. Lantanophaga pusillidactyla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) released on Pohnpei and on Palau in 1960. Established on both islands and exerting some control on Pohnpei. Also present on Truk and Yap. Spread to Mariana Islands (see above). Leptobyrsa docora Drake (Hemiptera: Tingidae) released on Palau, establishment unknown. Released in Mariana Islands, not established. Neogalea esua (Druce) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) released on Pohnpei, establishment unknown. Octotoma scabripennis Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) released on Guam, not established. Ophiomyia lantanae Froggatt (Diptera: Agromyzidae) released on Pohnpei, establishment doubtful; present on Palau. Released on Guam, established and effective; spread to Saipan and Tinian. Plagiohammun spinipennis (Thompson) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) released on Guam and Palau, not established. Pseudopyrausta acutangulalis (Sneller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) released on Pohnpei, establishment unknown. Salbia haemorrhoidalis Guenee released and established on Pohnpei. Released on Palau in 1960 and on Yap in 1962 but establishment doubtful. Released on Guam; not established. Teleonemia scrupulosa Stal (Hemiptera: Tingidae) released on Pohnpei and established. Taken to Palau in 1960 and Yap in 1962. Established on Palau but not on Yap. Spread to Chuuk and thriving there. Released on Saipan, established but effects unknown. Released on Guam 1969 and 1971 and provides good control. Present on Aguijan and Tinian. Uroplata girardi Pic released and established on Pohnpei. Taken to Palau in 1974. Established but effects unknown. Present on Chuuk. Released on Saipan but effect unknown. Released on Guam and established. Provides partial to substantial control. Recently distributed to Tinian, under evaluation (Julien, 1992; pp. 89-108, 138-141). Introduced to Vanuatu in 1984 but no monitoring.

"First plant subjected to biocontrol by any government agency.  Over two dozen biocontrol agents have been released to control it in Hawai‘i with results varying from ineffective to spectacular. The most effective are the defoliating caterpillar Hypena strigata; the seed-destroying fly Ophiomyia lantanae, and the lace bug Teleonemia scrupulosa. In places, infestations of lantana by biocontrol agents are universal but the effect on the population is not obvious even after decades of once- or twice-annual cycles of defoliation. Yet some areas have been cleared of lantana leading to a premature declaration of victory over it"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

In Mauritius: "In the early 1950s, a biological control research project identified a fungus in the genus Capnodium as a potential agent.  A polyphagous ortheziid bug (Orthezia insignis) that was accidentally introduced was also noted to attack L. camara.  In the 1960s, it was observed that L. camara was partially controlled by an accidentally introduced tingid bug (Geleonemia scrupulosa).  In the 1950s and 1960s a noctuid moth (Diastema tigris) and a pyralid moth (Salbia haemorrhoidalis [syn. Syngamia haemorrhoidalis]) were deliberately introduced as biocontrol agents.  Salbia haemorrhoidalis probably contributes to the suppression of the target weed.  A chrysomelid beetle released in the 1960s (Uroplata girardi) is widespread but has probably only a minimal impact.  Another noctuid moth (Hypena laceratalis), either an accidental introduction or possibly native, may also  attack L. camaraLantana camara is still frequently naturalized on Mauritius but has never become a major invasive species.  In contrast, it has become a major pest on Rodrigues, where not all biological control agents are present"  (Kueffer & Mauremootoo, 2004; p. 14).

The lantana stem-sucking bug (Acanophora compressa), has been introduced to Australia (Rachel McFadyen, communication to Aliens listserver).

Information on biocontrol agents released in Australia from the Government of Queensland.

"Among the most effective biocontrol agents for Lantana camara in Hawai‘i have been Plagiohammis spinipennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Hypena laceratalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Neogalea sunia (Lepidoptera: Noctuiae), Uroplata girardi (Coleoptera: Chrysolmelidae), Salbia haemorrhoidalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and Teleonemia scrupulosa (Hemiptera: Tingidae)"  (Biological control in Hawai‘i).

"L’espèce a fait l’objet de nombreux programmes de lutte biologiques et de multiples insectes phytophages (plus d’une trentaine) ont été introduits, notamment dans les îles du Pacifique (Palau, Saipan, Guam, Tinian, Pohnpei, Chuuk en Micronésie, Fidji, Vanuatu en Mélanésie, Hawaii en Polynésie) ainsi qu’en Australie, mais avec un succès mitigé (Waterhouse & Norris, 1987; Julien & Griffiths, 1998)" (Meyer, 2008; pp. 23-24).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.
Information and photos at Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format).
Weed Management Guide from the Government of Australia. (PDF format).
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Photo and information on the Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, web site.
Additional information at the Woody Plant Ecology web site.
Article from "Wildland Weeds".

Additional online information about Lantana camara is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Lantana camara as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Lantana camara may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology (2006) 31, 747-758.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM837(Blackburn, B. E-96).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM838(Blackburn E-66).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM836(Salsedo 90).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1969. Voucher specimen #BNM1452(Salsedo, C.A. 150).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1977. Voucher specimen #BNM899(Canfield, J.E. 164).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1903. Voucher specimen #BISH 187378 (Seale, A.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 187388 (Eames, A.J. 116).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 187389 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 94).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 187385 (Parks, H.E. 20884).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 187390 (Christophersen, E. 225).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 187380 (Smith, A.C. 341).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 187383 (Degener, O. 15026).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1943. Voucher specimen #BISH 187382 (Greenwood, W. 575A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 187362 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3516).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 187363 (Fosberg, F.R. 24492).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 187375 (Fosberg, F.R. 26852).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 421833 (St.John, H. 21794).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 424153 (St.John, H. 22118).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 187372 (Wong, C.C.Y. 254).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 187381 (Smith, A.C. 6026).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 187371 (Wong, C.C.Y. 558).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 10850 (Bryan; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 187377 (Glassman, S.F. 2435).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 187364 (Fosberg, F.R. 32388).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 187376 (Fosberg, F.R. 32111).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 187369 (Fosberg, F.R. 35301).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 187384 (Smith, A.C. 7501).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 187386 (Yuncker, T.G. 15002).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 187387 (Yuncker, T.G. 15426).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 187370 (Fosberg, F.R. 35421).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 33620 (Nand, S. 9981).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 33621 (Nand, S. 10786).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 33622 (Narayan, R. 11446).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1963. Voucher specimen #BISH 652930 (Fosberg, F.R. 43487).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1964. Voucher specimen #BISH 187400 (Krauss, N.L.H. 958A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81644 (Cushing, M.V. 619).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 652928 (Evans, M. 691).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 652929 (Evans, M. 794).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 652952 (Fosberg, F.R. 46509).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 81651 (Blackburn, B.S. E 66).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 22326 (Smith, H.M. 42).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 81645 (Hardy, S. 98).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 453046 (Adair, F. GLBT/27/FA).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28833 (Bristol, M.L. 2306).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 81674 (Fosberg, F.R. 50616).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 567914 (Fosberg, F.R. 50616).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 81924 (Stoddart, D.R. 2110).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 699120 (Weiner, M.A. T 14).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 409986 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1407).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 611038 (Kirch 179).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000764 (Kirch 179).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 416651 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1455).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 416652 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1442).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438223 (Fosberg, F.R. 58485).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 588140 (Fosberg, F.R. 59995).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 588312 (Fosberg, F.R. 59849).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 493169 (Florence, J. 2209).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493171 (Florence, J. 2792).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493172 (Florence, J. 3003).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 640310 (G.Buelow 3209).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492568 (Florence, J. 4716).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 545584 (Florence, J. 6153).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 545611 (Florence, J. 5992).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 574240 (Florence, J. 5016).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 509053 (Krauss, N.H. 3008).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 511222 (Krauss, N. 1908).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 511405 (Krauss, N. 1882).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 643371 (Florence 10749).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 648837 (Florence 11739).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633322 (A.K.Kepler 93-18).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 658578 (Florence 12032).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 649812 (Rinehart, A.F. LR26351).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2003. Voucher specimen #BISH 697763 (C.Imada 2003-151).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Délégation à l'Environnement/Délégation à Recherche. 2001. Les plantes envahissantes en Polynésie Française. French Polynesia. 2 p. folder.

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Denton, G. R. W./Muniappan, R./Marutani, M. 1991. The distribution and biological control of Lantana camara in Micronesia. Micronesica Suppl. 3:71-81.

Denton, G. R. W./Muniappan, R./Marutani, M. 1991. Status and natural enemies of the weed, Lantana camara, in Micronesia. Tropical Pest Management 37(4):338-344.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce. 1989. New collections and notes on the plants of Henderson, Pitcairn, Oeno, and Ducie Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 329. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 18 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. 1994. Flora of the Phoenix Islands, central Pacific. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 393. 60 pp.

Fosberg, F. Raymond. 1990. A review of the natural history of the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 330. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 100 pp.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Harley, Barbara. 2009. Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland. (online resource).

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Imada, Clyde. 2006. Flora of the Marshall Islands: Maloelap Atoll. Species determinations by Clyde Imada, Bishop Museum Herbarium, Hawai‘i. Unpublished checklist, 2 pp.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Julien, M. H. (ed.). 1992. Biological control of weeds: A world catalogue of agents and their target weeds (third edition). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 186 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 4. R233;union. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-4E. 37 pp.

Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-3E. 35 pp.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lawesson, J. E. 1990. Alien plants in the Galapagos Islands: a summary. Monogr. Sys. Bot. Missouri Bot. Garden 32:15-20.

Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The distribution and importance of arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture and forestry plantations in southern China. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia. 185 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarenes Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18 (1):51-61.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McMullen, C. K. 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Comstock Pub. Assoc., Ithaca, N.Y. 370 p.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

Moul, Edwin T. 1957. Preliminary report on the flora of Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 57. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 48 pp.

Mune, T. L./Parham, J. W. 1967. The declared noxious weeds of Fiji and their control. Third edition. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 48. 87 pp.

Muniappan, R. 1989. Operational and scientific notes: Biological control of Lantana Camara L. in Yap. Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. 29:195-196.

Muniappan, R./Denton, G. R. W./Brown, J. W./Lali, T. S./Prasad, U./Sing, P. 1996. Effectiveness of the natural enemeis of Lantana camara on Guam: A site and seasonal evaluation. Entomophaga 41(2):167-182.

Muniappan, R./Viraktamath, C. A. 1986. Status of biological control of the weed, Lantana camara in India. Trop. Pest Management 32(1):40-42.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Owen, S. J. 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in south-southeast Asia: national reports and directory of resources. Global Invasive Species Programme. 111 pp.

Parsons, W. T./Cuthbertson, E. G. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 692 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Rivers, Julie. 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipeligo, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific. 16 pp. plus "List of the higher plants of Diego Garcia".

Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. 1983. List of plants collected on Coetivy Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Sachet, M.-H. 1983. Natural history of Mopelia Atoll, Society Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Reserch Bulletin 274. 37 pp.

Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: National Reports & Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa. 185 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Smith, Nicholas M. 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT, Inc. 112 pp.

Soria, M./Taylor, U./Tye, A./Wilkenson, S. R. 2002. Identificación y manajo de malezas en las isles Galapágos. Fundación Charles Darwin, Parque Nacional Galapágos. 69 pp.

Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. Report to the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 32 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 103 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane. 2000. Invasive plant species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 31 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

St. John, H. 1987. An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island with new Pandanus species. Pacific Plant Studies 46. Honolulu, 65 pp. [Privately published].

St. John, Harold. 1988. Census of the Flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43. Honolulu, Hawaii. 34 pp. [Privately published].

Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd. 2008. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. Prepared for: United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 27 pp. plus appendices.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Thaman, R. R. 1987. Plants of Kiribati: a listing and analysis of vernacular names. Atoll Res. Bull. 296:1-42.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

Thaman, R. R./Tuiwawa, M. 1999. Invasive, potentially invasive and adventive alien plant species of Fiji: a preliminary analysis of their status and measures required for their control. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region: Regional Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October 1999.

Toyoda, Takeshi. 2003. Flora of the Bonin Islands. Aboc & Co. 522 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

University of California. 2006. Moorea Digital Flora Project (online resource).

Unknown. 0. Plants found in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Gilbert and Ellis Islands Colony. Dept. of Agriculture, Technical Handbook. Unpaged typed manuscript.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 0. Nancy Vander Velde, pers. com.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2007. Arno plants [preliminary working listing of plant species]. Unpublished checklist, 13 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2009. Specimens from Likiep, Majuro, Wotje and Arno (unpublished checklist). 4 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2010. Survey of Invasive Plant Species and Other Plants of Mili Atoll, Marshall Islands. USDA Forest Resource Management Grant Program. Unpublished report. 6 pp, plus tabulation of plants of Mili Atoll, 23 pp.

Vos, P. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 2. The Comoros Archipelago (Union of the Comoros and Mayotte). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-2E. 34 pp.

Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. 2013. Flora of Micronesia. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 93 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F./Norris, K. R. 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. Inkata Press, Melbourne. 454 pp.

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Wester, Lyndon. 1985. Checklist of the vascular plants of the northern Line Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Reseach Bulletin 287:1-38.

Whistler, W. A. 1983. Vegetation and flora of Aleipata Islands, Western Samoa. Pac. Sci. 37: 227-249.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1995. Wayside Plants of the Islands. Isle Botanica, Honolulu. 202 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals: a guide. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 542 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. 1997. Botanical survey of the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area, Niue. Unpublished technical report. 76 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya. 2006. An annotated checklist and new island records of flowering plants from Lehua Islet, Ni‘ihau, Hawai‘i. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 87:19-29.

Woodroffe, C. D. 1985. Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 283. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 18 pp. + maps, photos.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).

Ziesing, P. 1997. Norfolk Island weed control manual for selected weeds occurring in Norfolk Island National Park. Environment Australia, Norfolk Island.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.