Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Kyllinga polyphylla
Willd. ex Kunth., Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cyperus aromaticus (Ridl.) Mattf. & Kük.; Kyllinga aromatica Ridley

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shui wu gong

English: Navua sedge

Samoan: tuise Fiti, tuise tele

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "A medium-sized, clump-forming, rhizomatous sedge; culms closely spaced, 20-50 cm tall, sharply 3-angled.  Leaves mostly basal, acute, ± flat, glabrous; lamina often reduced, to 15 cm long, 3-5 mm wide; sheath and basal scales purplish red.  Bracts 5-7, in a spreading whorl, 8-20 cm long, resembling leaves.  Inflorescence a sessile, subspherical head of spikelets 7-12 mm diameter, green becoming pale brown, often combined with 1-few secondary heads.  Spikelets densely crowded, falcate, compressed, ca 4 mm long, ca 1 mm wide.  Glumes several, the basal pair very short, the next pair as long as and enclosing spikelet, mucronate, keeled; keel toothed.  Nutlet ± lens-shaped, blackish"  (Du Puy, 1993; p. 383).

Habitat/ecology:  "A major weed of improved pastures, but also occurs in crops, gardens, plantations and roadsides.  It grows best in moist fertile soil that is seldom cultivated and in full sunshine"  (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 16-17). May be a threat to native wetlands.  In Fiji, "a vigorous and noxious weed, occurring near sea level along roadsides, on hillsides and river banks, and in pastures, open swamps, and rice fields"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 260-261). In New Caledonia, "largement répandu; envahissant dans les pâturages" (MacKee, 1994; p. 48).

Propagation:  Seed, rhizomes (Whistler, 1983; p. 79).

Native range:  Tropical Africa and some Indian Ocean islands; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 260-261)
Voucher cited: DA 11533
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 260-261)
Vouchers cited: DA 5020
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 260-261)
Vouchers cited: DA 8633, DA 10099, Greenwood 984, DA 10544, DA 10902, DA 10808, DA 9611, DA 10930, DA 8031, DA 10448, DA 10093
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 34160)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus aromaticus (Ridley) Mattf. & Kukenth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 34161)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus aromaticus (Ridley) Mattf. & Kukenth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 34167)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus aromaticus (Ridley) Mattf. & Kukenth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 34168)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus aromaticus (Ridley) Mattf. & Kukenth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 34169)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus aromaticus (Ridley) Mattf. & Kukenth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 415787)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus aromaticus (Ridley) Mattf. & Kukenth.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence , D.H. Lorence , S.P. Perlman & W.L. Wagner 9434 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601627)
Taxon name on voucher: Kyllinga polyphylla Willd. ex Kunth.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000648)
Taxon name on voucher: Kyllinga polyphylla Willd. ex Kunth.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8925)
Taxon name on voucher: Kyllinga polyphylla
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42491)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus aromaticus
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4454 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 50333)
Taxon name on voucher: Kyllinga polyphylla
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue; envahissante dans les pâturages.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 48)
Vouchers cited: Buchholz 1415, MacKee 1069, MacKee 2061, MacKee 12830, MacKee 24372, MacKee 28359, MacKee 30714, Toutain 1198 (NOU)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Voucher: Flynn 6924 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 316)
Taxon name on voucher: Kyllinga polyphylla
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
As Kyllinga monophylla Willd. ex Kunth
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
As Kyllinga monophylla Willd. ex Kunth
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
As Kyllinga monophylla Willd. ex Kunth
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized in moist or brackish sandy areas; below 300 m. Hong Kong.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 316)
As Kyllinga aromatica (Ridl.) Mattf. & Kunth. In wasteland.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 260-261)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 64)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 53)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized in moist or brackish sandy areas; below 300 m.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 117)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 180)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2890 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 148)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3100 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Very prevalent in pastures and along roadsides and other disturbed places in Samoa.

Control: 

Physical: "Checked by cultivation in most soils and controlled by cultivation in dry soils.  Fairly unpalatable to stock, but maly be eaten if cut and fed mixed with other forage.  Not susceptible to burning.  Slashing will only give temporary control.  Competition from vigous well-adapted and well-managed grasses will suppress the weed." (Swarbrick, 1997)

Chemical: Susceptible to the translocated herbicide, glyphosate, at standard rate" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 26).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.