Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Justicia gendarussa
Burm. f., Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Gendarussa vulgaris Nees

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: qin qiu, xiao bo gu

English: black malabar nut, water willow, willow-leaved justicia

French: ayapana marron, laliapana marron, natchouli, natchouli, nitchoulli, yapana malgache, yapana marron

Tagalog: kapanitulot

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Subshrubs 0.7-1.5 cm tall, much branched. Stems subterete, swollen at nodes, glabrous. Petiole 3-10 mm; leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, 6-10 x 1-1.5 cm, glabrous, secondary veins 5-8 on each side of midvein, base cuneate to attenuate, margin subsinuate, apex acute to shortly acuminate. Spikes terminal or axillary, 3-12 cm, interrupted, usually in a leafy panicle; peduncle 0.5-1.5 cm; bracts triangular, 2-6 x 1-2.5 mm, basal ones longer than calyx then gradually smaller with apicalmost ones shorter than calyx, margin ciliate, apex acute; bracteoles elliptic to linear-lanceolate, ca. 3 x 1 mm, margin ciliate, apex acute. Calyx ca. 5 mm, 5-lobed; lobes linear-lanceolate, 3-4 x ca. 0.5 mm, subequal, apex acuminate. Corolla creamy white, 1.2-1.5 cm; tube basally cylindric and ca. 2 mm wide for 8-9 mm; lower lip violet dotted basally, cuneate-obovate, 6-10 mm broad, 3-lobed, lobes oblanceolate and 3-5 x ca. 3.5 mm; upper lip violet blotched, triangular, ca. 7 x 3.5 mm, 2-cleft. Stamens exserted; filaments 3-6 mm, glabrous; anther thecae oblong, ca. 1.2 mm, superposed, lower one spurred at base, upper one muticous. Ovary glabrous; style ca. 1 cm, glabrous; stigma capitate, shortly 2-lobed. Capsule clavate, ca. 1.2 cm"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Locally naturalized in Mauritius and La Réunion in moist forest understorey or near rivers up to 850 m elevation.  The species is widely naturalized in the forest understoreys of Rodrigues where it is considered as invasive.  It is also sparingly naturalized in the Seychelles, especially in montane rain forests along rivers at about 720 m elevation"  (Meyer & Lavergne; 2004; p. 338).

Propagation:  Seed (rarely).  "The plant is rarely found in fruit in the Mascarenes"  (Meyer & Lavergne; 2004; pp. 338, 345).

Native range:  China and possibly other southeast Asia countries; exact native range obscure; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 664557)
Taxon name on voucher: Justicia gendarussa Burm.f.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, thickets. Naturalized or cultivated in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Java; possibly native to the Moluccas
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaya
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 52)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, thickets.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 117)
Garden remnant.
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Probably introduced in cultivation by the Chinese, now naturalised at South Point. Vouchers cited: D.A. Powell 536 (K), D.A. Powell 793 (K).
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 338)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 338)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 338)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Additional information:
Additional online information about Justicia gendarussa is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Justicia gendarussa as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Justicia gendarussa may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.). 2000. Voucher specimen #BISH664557(Chun, E. s.n.).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe. 2004. Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific Islands. Diversity and Distributions 10 (2004): 333-347.

Porcher, Michel H. 2013. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne, Australia. Online resource.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 23 MAR 2013 and was last updated on 1 APR 2013.