Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Jatropha curcas
L., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia)).
High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S.)).
Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S.(Florida))).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: tuba-tuba, tuba-tuba

Chinese: ma feng shu

Chuukese: sáfeen kinas

English: Barbados nut, bubble bush, physic nut, purging nut

Fijian: banidakai, fiki, manggele, maqele, mbanindakai, ndrala, uto ni vavalangi, wiriwiri, wiriwiri ni vavalangi

French: médicinier, pignon d'Inde, pion d'Inde, purghère

Hawaiian: kuikui Pākē, kuku‘ihi

Maori (Cook Islands): fiki, pakarani, piki, tuitui pakarangi, tuke, tuke

Pohnpeian: seken, tuhkenlop

Rotuman: virvir, virviri

Samoan: pāfiki, pāfiki, pāfiti, pāfiti

Spanish: frailejón, piñón, piñón blanco

Tongan: fiki

Wallisian: fiki, fiki

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A big shrub to 3 m tall; leaves usually 3-5-lobed, rarely simple, cordate, palmately nerved, dull olive green, the lobes acute, rather short; petioles 10-14 cm long; blades 10-19 cm long; panicles terminal or axillary; flowers yellow-green; sepals somewhat petaloid; petals basally coherent; male flower with internally pubescent corolla; stamens many, disc of 5 unequal glands; ovary 3 (sometimes 2 or 4)-celled; capsule gray-brown; seeds oily, compressed elliptic-oblong, ovary 1 cm long, nearly black"  (Stone, 1970; p. 380).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is well adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions. Most Jatropha species occur in the following seasonally dry areas: grassland-savannah (cerrado), thorn forest scrub and caatingas, but are completely lacking from moist Amazonia.

"Latitude: 28oN to 30oS.
Altitude: Provenances have been collected from altitudes varying from 7 to 1600 m above sea level. Usually it is found from 0 to 500.
Temperature: Average temperatures of provenance collection sites range from 11 to28o C. It can survive a short, slight frost.
Water: Average annual precipitation of provenance collection sites is from 520 to 2000 mm. However the species survives well in semi-arid regions. It has stood several years without rainfall in Cape Verde.
Radiation:
Range & intensity: Bright sunlight.
Photoperiodism: It is daylight insensitive.
Physical: It grows on well-drained soils with good aeration and adapts well to marginal soils with low nutrient content." (Ecoport).

In Fiji, "cultivated and also naturalized along roadsides, on open slopes, and sometimes in forest"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 545-546).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 623). In Tonga, "often grows in rows about plantations, along roads, and other places where it is used as living fence posts" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 165). In New Caledonia, "planté en haies et localement commun en fourré secondaires" (MacKee, 1994; p. 52).

In La Réunion, "naturalized in semi-dry vegetation along trails and river-banks. " (Christophe Lavergne, communication to Aliens listserver).  In Australia, "disturbed areas around old settlements" (Smith, 2002; pp. 30-31).

Propagation:  The fruit releases three large black seeds (nuts), each about 2 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. "The capsules split open when ripe to expel seeds away from the parent plant.  Seeds are also dispersed by water and in mud on vehicles and machinery or animals.  Some spread occurs from the tuberous roots which sucker." (Smith, 2002; pp. 30-31).

Native range:  Native of the Caribbean region, has been introduced as a hedge and ornamental plant to many countries including Europe, Africa, India, Indonesia, Philippines and some Pacific Islands and Australia (Ecoport).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2180 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 30)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 528 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L), Moore 322 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58994
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 143282)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635253)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635254)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000034)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 143284)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 143294)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 659566)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 143280)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 143286)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1944) (voucher ID: BISH 143288)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 572850)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 42)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 81)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 92)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 143253)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 143287)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 72)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 86)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3935 (NY, PTBG), R. Gallen 47 (NY, PTBG), L. Stemmermann 6530 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 792 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 143281)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 503386)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 38943)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 33312)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 545-546)
Voucher cited: Bryan 573
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 143274)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 143275)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 143276)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 545-546)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 778
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 545-546)
Vouchers cited: Gillespie 4576, Weiner 166
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 143273)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 448634)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 619160)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 619167)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 637928)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 545-546)
Vouchers cited: DA 3778, Bierhorst F157
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 545-546)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 355, DA 11328, Gillespie 4397, DA 10735, Meebold 17069, Weiner 101, DA 11069
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 14840)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 14841)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 143277)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 143278)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448545)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 103)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 109)
Voucher cited: BRY 26569
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11785 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 103)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11785 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 662502)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 109)
Voucher cited: Grant 4598
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 103)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 103)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 380)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 140-141)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 23018)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 143283)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 143285)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 143290)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 143291)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 659673)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 697222)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 137)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED94 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 623)
Voucher cited: Degener et al. 19330 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 137)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 137)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 52-53)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2409 (Z)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 52-53)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2409a (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 52-53)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 13979, MacKee 16262, MacKee 36508
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 44)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 28)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 312)
Cultivated throughout the tropics and sometimes ± wild.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 449)
In hedges, usually very common in and about towns.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 143266)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1893) (voucher ID: BISH 143269)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 143270)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 165)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15774
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 143264)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 651844)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1000816)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 165)
"Frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 143267)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 697211)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 165)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15637
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 143263)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 603768)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 165)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15116
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 143265)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3905)
Taxon name on voucher: Jatropha curcas
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 165)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 53)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Woodroffe 184 (CHR)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
"Potential invader". Lowland dense forest.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 30-31)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 30-31)
Naturalized and weedy.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 183)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 199)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 199)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 52)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 117)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Grande Comore (Njazidja) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé (rudérale)"
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2711

Comments:  Thinking of planting Jatropha curcas for biofuel?  First read "The Extraordinary Collapse of Jatropha as a Global Biofuel".

Reported as a potential invader of lowland forest on Wallis and Futuna Islands (Meyer, 2000; p. 107).

On Tonga, planted as living fenceposts from whence it escapes and naturalizes (Space & Flynn, 2001).

Declared noxious species in Western Australia (Smith, 2002; pp. 30-31).

Additional information:
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.

Additional online information about Jatropha curcas is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Jatropha curcas as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Jatropha curcas may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 143280 (collector unknown; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1893. Voucher specimen #BISH 143269 (Reinecke, Dr. 182).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1911. Voucher specimen #BISH 143290 (McGregor, R.C. 531).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 143291 (Nelson, P. 172).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 143267 (McKern, W.C. 116).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 143270 (Eames, A.J. 15).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 143274 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 573).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 143275 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 573).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 143276 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 573).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 143277 (Gillespie, J.W. 4397).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 143273 (Gillespie, J.W. 4576).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 143253 (Wilder, G.P. 896).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 143266 (Christophersen, E. 227).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 143278 (Meebold, A. 17069).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 143281 (Takamastu, M. 792).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 619160 (St.John, H. 19340).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 619167 (St.John, H. 19078).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1944. Voucher specimen #BISH 143288 (Cameron, C.E.R.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 143283 (Fosberg, F.R. 25373).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 143284 (Fosberg, F.R. 25110).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 143285 (Fosberg, F.R. 25373).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 143286 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2926).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 572850 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2926).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 143287 (Wong, C.C.Y. 262).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 143282 (Anderson, D. 528).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 143294 (Kondo, Y.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 143263 (Yuncker, T.G. 15637).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 143264 (Yuncker, T.G. 15774).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 143265 (Yuncker, T.G. 15116).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 14841 (Ledua, M.K. 11069).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 14840 (Koroiveibau, D. 11328).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 659566 (Evans, M. 2045).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 659673 (Evans, M. 1463).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 23018 (Cushing-Falanruw, M.V. 775).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 697222 (Cushing-Falanruw, M.V. 775).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 697211 (Weiner, M.A. T 19b).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 448545 (Weiner, M.A. MW-71-7-101).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 448634 (Weiner, M.A. MW-72-F-166).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1979. Voucher specimen #BISH 503386 (Stemmermann, R.L. 6530).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 651844 (Buelow, G. 2687).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000816 (G.Buelow 2687).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 635253 (Herbst, D.R. 7275).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 635254 (Herbst, D.R. 7275).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000034 (Herbst, D.R. 7275).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 603768 (O'Rourke, L. 228).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 637928 (McClatchey, W.C. 212).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 662502 (Florence 11785).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 1997. Flore de la Polynésie française, Vol. 1. Paris. Editions de l'Orstom, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 34. 393 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merlin, M./Juvik, J. 1996. Irá me neeniier nón Chuuk: Plants and their Environments in Chuuk. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp. .

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. 1985. Contribution à la connaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis & Futuna. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4e sér., 7, section B. Adansonia 3 : 259-329.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG38943(R. Gallen 47).

Ohba, T. 1994. Flora and vegetation of the northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Biological Expedition to the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. In A. Asakua & T. Furuki, eds.  Natural History Research, Special issue no. 1, Chiba, Japan: Natural History Museum and Institute. pp. 13-69.

Parham, J. W. 1958. The weeds of Fiji. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 35. 196 pp.

Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby. 2012. New plant records from the Big Island for 2009. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 113:55-63.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. 1996. A botanical reconnaissance of the proposed Compact-impact road alignment on Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau. U. of Guam Herbarium Cont. No. 32. 78 pp.

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

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Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 8 AUG 2011.