Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ischaemum polystachyum
J.S.Presl, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 20 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Ischaemum digitatum Brongn.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: cu sui ya zui cao

Chuukese: fatil

English: paddle grass

Kosraean: mah

Pohnpeian: reh padil

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Sprawling grass, with long decumbent culms finally ascending to 4 ft.; pubescence of nodes, sheaths and blades variable; racemes 4-7, 3 in. long, spreading; rachis joints and pedicels trigonous, the angle scabrous or short-ciliate, about 4 mm long, bowed equally away from each other; fertile lemma of sessile spikelet bearing a twisted geniculate awn" (Henty, 1969; p. 117).

"Habit: Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms decumbent, or prostrate; 30-150 cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Culm-nodes pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 5-25 cm long; 3-20 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent. Inflorescence: Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2-5(-8); paired, or digitate; unilateral; 3-15 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes cuneate; flat and forming a U or V shape with the pedicel in rear view, or flat and forming a U or V shape with the pedicel in rear view and with a basal circular pore between internode and pedicel. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels cuneate; 1 times length of internode; ciliate. STERILE Spikelets: Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; elliptic; laterally compressed; 4-7 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; keeled; 7-9 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes; 1-awned. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; dorsally compressed; 4-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; 1-1.5 mm long; bearded; base obtuse; inserted. Glumes: Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 times length of spikelet; chartaceous; much thinner above; 2-keeled; keeled above; keeled laterally; wingless, or winged on keel; winged above; 5-9 -veined. Lower glume surface convex; glabrous, or pilose, or villous. Lower glume apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid. Upper glume lanceolate; 1 times length of spikelet; chartaceous; 1-keeled; keeled above; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate. Florets: Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; 3-5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; 4-6 mm long; membranous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.5 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 5-20 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea 1 times length of lemma" (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Guinea in roadsides, garden clearings and grasslands from sea level to 6,000 feet (Henty, 1969; p. 117).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Indonesia to Philippines (GRIN), Polynesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-67)
Voucher cited: Hosaka 3036 (US, BISH, POM, NY, L)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 9)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll native
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 35)
var. intermidium (Brogn.) Fosb. & Sachet. Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 140 (GUAM), Manner & Mallon 298 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5761 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7875 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-68)
Var. intermedium (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: d'Urville (P, 2 sheets, syntypes; US, fragment)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21080)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum Presl
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Grassland"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5785 (BISH, BRI)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 58)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 13 (NY, PTBG), J. Bee 14 (NY), A. Dores 93 (BISH, NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 38 (BISH, NY, PTBG), E. Eperiam 38 (NY), F.R. Fosberg 26249 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58440 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2317 (BISH), S. Ishikawa 446 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 8048 (K, MO, NY, PTBG, US), D.H. Lorence 9614 (COM, NY, PTBG, US), F. Sohl 11 (NY, PTBG), B.M. Waterhouse BMW5785 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-68)
Var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Ledermann 13915 (B); var. intermedium (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 26249 (US, BISH, POM, NY), Fosberg 26304a (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 34810)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachum
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21115)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 29343)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum Presl
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 41832)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-68)
Var. intermedium (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg 47253 (US, BISH, POM, NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Grassland"
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-68)
Var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 46594 (US), Fosberg 46521 (US, BISH), Fosberg 25534 (US, BISH), Cushing 380a (US), Hosaka 3283 (US, BISH); var. intermedium (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Cushing 448 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 1001457)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum J.S.Presl
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 234, 236)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-68)
Var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Canfield 608 (US), Hosokawa 9643 (US), Hosokawa 6779 (US, fragment), Timberlake & Johannes 3027 (US); var. intermedium (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg 25726 (US, BISH, POM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Vouchers: Lorence 9811 (PTBG, BNM, NY), Lorence 9890 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 609877)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum J.S.Presl
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 661048)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 661162)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 661194)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3003)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum digitatum var. polystachyum (Presl.) Hack
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3036)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum digitatum var. polystachyum (Presl.) Hack
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3027)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum digitatum var. polystachyum (Presl.) Hack
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3178)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosb. & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3180)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosb. & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3181)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosb. & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9384)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosb. & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3184)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum var chordatum (Trim.) Fosb. & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 183)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 104)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachyum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Voucher: Lorence 9779A (PTBG, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 71)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-68)
Var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Hosaka 3343 (US, BISH), Fosberg 47502 (US, BISH); var. hillii Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Hill 6 (US, holotype; GUAM, isotype); var. intermedium (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Otobed PW-10091
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-67)
Var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Evans 561 (US, BISH, POM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-67)
Var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 25656 (US, BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Voucher: Lorence 9759 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 42)
Taxon name on voucher: Ischaemum polystachum
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 46-47)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 65-67)
Var. chordatum (Trin.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 32366 (US, BISH)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 117)
Common, at roadsides, in garden clearings and grassland, from sea level to 6000 ft., favouring rather wet situations.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 84)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Islands in Torres Strait
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist places on grassy plains and hillsides; 100-400 m. Guangdong, Guizhou, Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Although this is a native grass, it is very abundant along roadsides and in disturbed areas. It is particularly aggressive on Pohnpei.

Fosberg et al. (1987; pp. 46-47) list varieties polystachyum, present on Rota and Guam; chordatum (Trin.) Fosb. & Sachet, present on Palau (Babeldaob, Koror, Ngarakabesang, Malakal, and Aulupse'el), Yap, and possibly Pohnpei; hillii Fosb. & Sachet, present on Palau (Koror); and intermedium Brongn., present on Palua (Babeldaob, Koror), Yap, Ifaluk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 MAY 2013.