Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ipomoea indica
(Burm.f.) Merr., Convolvulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Risk assessment from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).

Other Latin names:  Convolvulus indicus Burm.; Ipomoea acuminata (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.; Ipomoea cathartica Poir.; Ipomoea learii Paxton; Ipomoea versicolor Meisn.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bian se qian niu

English: blue dawnflower, blue morning-glory, common morning-glory, morning glory, ocean-blue morning-glory, perennial morning-glory, purple morning-glory, purple-flower bellvine, purple-flower morning-glory, tall morning-glory

Fijian: wa sasala, wa sasala vuti, wa sovivi, wa voji, wa vuli, wa vuti

Hawaiian: koali ‘awa, koali ‘awahia, koali lā‘au, koali pehu

Palauan: oliemad

Tongan: fue ‘ae puaka

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Vines; stems twining, herbaceous to somewhat woody near base, often more than 5 m long, many-branched, appressed pubescent to glabrate.  Leaf blades membranous, broadly ovate, 5-9 cm long, densely pubescent, especially on lower surface, or glabrate or completely glabrous, 3-lobed or entire, apex acuminate to obtuse, base cordate, petioles about as long as blades.  Flowers 1 to few in cymes, these usually silky white pubescent, pedicels ca. 10 mm long; sepals herbaceous, lanceolate to ovate, 14-23 mm long, appressed pubescent to glabrate, apex long-acuminate to acuminate; corolla blue or purple, rarely white, funnelform, 5-7 cm long, the limb 6-8 cm in diameter.  Capsules brown, often 4-angled, globose or somewhat flattened apically, up to 1 cm in diameter, glabrous.  Seeds (1-) 4, tan to dark brown, rounded, 4-5 mm long, glabrous"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 556-557).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Forest edges, riparian habitats, woodland, seasonal freshwater wetlands.  In the native range, this herb grows in coastal sites, moist forests and disturbed places.  The trailing stems lead to dense infestation that crowd out native vegetation by smothering shrubs and trees"  (Weber, 2003; p. 217).

In Hawai‘i, "common in low elevation, dry, often disturbed areas, usually below 150 (-1,250) m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 556-557).  In Fiji, "from near sea level to 750 m in forest or on its edges, in thickets, on reeds in open places, and as an occasional weed in plantations and waste places and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 62-63).  In New Zealand, "forest and scrub margins, around gardens and plantations.  Plants of blue morning glory are often very vigorous and may smother trees and shrubs"  (Webb et al., 1988; 558).

Propagation:  Seed and stem fragments.  Stems easily root at nodes.  "Plants in New Zealand and Australia do not form viable seeds.  Cut stems resprout vigorously"  (Weber, 2003; p. 217).

Native range:  Pantropical  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 556-557).  South America, now circumtropical as a cultivated and naturalized plant (Flora of China online).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island probably introduced
abo. intro.
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 554)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31731 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Falanruuw 1848 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalised
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalised
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
var. hosakae Fosb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
var. hosakae Fosb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 80)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 22 (NY, PTBG), E. Albert 186 (NY, PTBG), F. Sohl 18 (NY, PTBG), F. Sohl 24 (NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 885
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: Smith 7402
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 63)
Vouchers cited: Weiner 71-7-45b, DA 14412
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 63)
Vouchers cited: Smith 6596, Smith 358, DA 12067
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1120
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 63)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 300, Smith 4275, Smith 8755, Weiner 278, Weiner 153, H.B.R. Parham 379, Smith 7094, DA 11042, H.B.R. Parham 15
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island native
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: St. John 14681 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island native
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14484 (BISH), St. John 14562 (BISH), St. John 11354 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lisianski Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Nihoa Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands native
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Sykes 1093
Niue
Niue
Niue Island Whistler, W. Arthur (1984) (p. 566)
collected by Sykes in 1975 (pers. comm. to Arthur Whistler)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 224)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"En masses denses étouffant la végétation herbacée ou en draperies sur les arbres. Très abondante au village, introduite comme ornementale, il y a plus de 50 ans". Voucher cited: J. Florence 10784 (PAP)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: Parks 16066, Yuncker 15478, Hotta 5189 n.s., Sykes 617, Whistler 5978, Whistler 6473, Whistler 7375
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: Nelson n.s., Setchell & Parks 15249, Hurlimann 49, Yuncker 15040, Yuncker 15273, Yuncker 16231, Hotta 4085 n.s., Hotta 5102 n.s., Alexander 5803, Lawarence 8, Soakai 619, Buelow 109, Whistler 6729
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Kirch 226
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: Crosby n.s., Buelow 933
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 557)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island native
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-9)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Widely cultivated; garden escape".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 4)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Widely cultivated; garden escape".
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Coastal habitats, moist forests, weedy; 0-500 m. Guangdong, Hainan (Nanhai Zhudao)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 558)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island probably introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Coastal habitats, moist forests, weedy; 0-500 m.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Alabama, Louisana, Mississippi, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  While this species is native throughout most of the Pacific region, it is an aggressive vine and should not be introduced to islands where it is not present.

Control: 

Physical:  "Small inrfestations can be removed manually, but all roots and all stems touching the ground must be removed"

Chemical:  "Chemical control is done by cutting vines at breast height, laying the lower portions on the ground and spraying them with herbicide"  (Weber, 2003; p. 217).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 16 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2017.