Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ipomoea cairica
(L.) Sweet, Convolvulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Convolvulus cairicus L.; Ipomoea heptaphylla Voigt; Ipomoea palmata Forssk.; Ipomoea tuberculata (Desr.) Roem. & Schult.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: wu zhao jin long

English: Cairo morning glory, coastal morning glory, five-fingered morning glory, five-leaf morning-glory, ivy-leaved morning glory, mile-a-minute, mile-a-minute-vine, morning glory, railroad creeper, railway-creeper

Fijian: wasovivi

French: ipomée du Caire, liane de sept ans

Hawaiian: koali, koali ‘ai, koali ‘ai‘ai, koali lau manamana, kowali, pa‘ali‘i

Japanese: momiji-hirugao

Niuean: sefifi sea

Other: murio, sosomia

Tongan: maile miniti

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Vines; stems twining or sometimes prostrate, herbaceous but woody toward base, up to 4 m or more long, smooth or muricate, glabrous or rarely villous at nodes.  Leaf blades chartaceous, ovate to orbicular in outline, 3-10 cm long and wide, palmately divided, usually to base into 5-7 lobes, the lobes lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, 3-5 cm long, apex acute or obtuse and mucronulate, outer lobes sometimes bifid, glabrous, petioles up to ca. 2/3 as long as blades, pseudostipules present.  Flowers 1 to numerous in lax dichasia, peduncles 5-80 mm long, pedicels 12-30 mm long; sepals ovate, 4-6.5 mm long, outer ones slightly shorter, glabrous, more or less verrucose, margins scarious, apex obtuse to acute, mucronulate; corolla purple, bluish purple, or white with a purple center, funnelform, (3-) 4.5-6 cm long. Capsules brown, subglobose, 1-1.2 cm long, glabrous.  Seeds black to tan, subglobose to ovoid, 4-6 mm long, densely short-tomentose, sometimes with long silky hairs along the margins"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 555-556).

Habitat/ecology:  "Coastal dunes and bluffs, forest edges, riparian habitats.  The fast growing plant is invasive because its trailing and climbing stems can completely smother native shrubs and trees, impeding their growth and preventing their regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 216).

In Hawai‘i, "apparently a naturalized species in primarily open, dry, usually rocky, often disturbed areas, from near sea level up to 670 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 555-556).  In Fiji, "introduced as a cultivated plant but now an often locally abundant weed near sea level in open places, along roadsides, on open slopes, in gardens, etc." (Smith, 1991; pp. 57-68). In New Caledonia, "largement dispersé et parfois abondant en fourrés secondaires et lisières de forêt" (MacKee, 1994; p. 41). "Common in disturbed vegetation and along roadsides" (Whistler, 1988; p. 13).

Propagation:  "Seeds are dispersed by wind or water.  Stems easily root at nodes"  (Weber, 2003; p. 216).

Native range:  Tropical Africa and Asia. In Hawai‘i, an early introduction or possibly indigenous (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 555-556).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"Almost cosmopolitan through cultivation as an ornamental, and is now frequently weedy". Vouchers cited: M.M.J. van Balgooy 1055 (CANB), P.S. Green 1961 (K), A.N. Rodd 1809 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"Almost cosmopolitan through cultivation as an ornamental, and is now frequently weedy". Vouchers cited: R.M. Laing (CHR), G. Uhe 1119 (K), J.D. McComish 94 (K, NSW)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 67-68)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 419A, DA 10496
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 67-68)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 419, DA 11336, DA 5746, DA 2763, DA 11078, Krauss 1411, DA 12305
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 30962)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea cairica
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 31)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 42131)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea cairica
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 555-556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 555-556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 555-556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 555-556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 4)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Bartlett H89939 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 34)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr, Starr & Bryce 040327-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 555-556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 555-556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 555-556)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2387
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2084
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Forest edges, sceondary scrub".
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement dispersée et parfois abondante en fourrés secondaires et lisières de forêt.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Balabio introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: MacKee 29341
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 41)
Vouchers cited: Védel s.n., Vieillard 1008 s.loc., MacGillivray 13, Balansa 552, Franc 1919, Guillaumin 8570, MacKee 11909, MacKee 12012, MacKee 19527
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 41)
Vouchers cited: Pancher 537, MacKee 23536
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
var. cairica
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Macauley Island native
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 559)
"Coastal areas".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 99)
Perhaps naturally introduced from New Zealand by birds.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island native
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 559)
"Coastal areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 72)
Presence not confirmed. Voucher cited: CHR 169795
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 13)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 467)
Cultivated and wild.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 364)
Widely distributed in cultivation, occurring also in waste places and thickets near dwellings.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
On most islands.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 13)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 72, field notes.)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 53, field notes.)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 47, Lawrence 50, Soakai 404
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 225)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15201
Occasional escape.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 66, field notes.)
Voucher: Flynn 6847 (PTBG)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 225)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16054
Occasional escape.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 262)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea cairica
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Widely cultivated as an ornamental, widespread garden escape in coastal districts, also recorded for Tamworth district and Sturt N.P.
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 4)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
var. cairica. Thickets, roadsides, waste places, cultivated areas, sunny meadows in lowlands; 100-600 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 222)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
var. cairica
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
var. cairica
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Oaxaca
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) native
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 559)
"Coastal areas".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 51)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
var. cairica. Thickets, roadsides, waste places, cultivated areas, sunny meadows in lowlands; 100-600 m.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 193)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
var. cairica
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
var. cairica
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 116)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Moderately invasive in New Caledonia (Swarbrick, 1997).

Control: 

Physical:  "Small infestations can be removed manually, but all roots and all stems touching the ground must be removed".

Chemical:  "Chemical control is done by cutting vines at breast height, laying the lower portions on the ground and spraying them with herbicide"  (Weber, 2003; p. 216).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 4 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 17 JAN 2011.