Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ipomoea aquatica
Forssk., Convolvulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Weed risk assessment for the United States (PDF format).

Other Latin names:  Ipomoea reptans sensu J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: cancon, kangkun, kangkung, kankan

Chinese: weng cai

Chuukese: aseri, seeri, seri, seri

English: Chinese water spinach, creeping swamp morning glory, kang kong, morning glory, pink convolvulus, potato-vine, swamp cabbage, swamp morningglory, ung ts'oi, ung-choi, water convolvulus, water morning-glory, water spinach

Fijian: luve ni tombithi, ndrinikava, ota karisa, ota karisi, wa kumala

French: liseron d'eau, patate aquatique, patate d'eau

Hindi: karamua

I-Kiribati: te kang kong, te ruku

Japanese: yosai

Maori (Cook Islands): rukau taviri

Nauruan: lorenzo

Other: kang koung

Palauan: kangkum, kangum, kankum

Pohnpeian: kangkong

Samoan: kapisi vai, kapisi vai

Spanish: espinaca acuática

Ulithian: kangkong

Yapese: kangking, kangkong

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description:  "An aquatic herbaceous, glabrous perennial or sometimes an annual when growing in an unfavorable site; stems creeping on mud or floating on ponds or ditches, may be 3 m in length, hollow or spongy, often rooting at nodes; leaves alternate, variable, oblong-ovate, or lanceolate, with base hastate, cordate, or truncate, basal lobes may be rounded or acute, apex acute or obtuse, margins may be slightly sinuate, 3 to 15 cm long and 1 to 10 cm wide, long-petioled 3 to 20 cm; flowers axillary, erect, perfect, large and showy; pedicels usually 1- or 2-flowered, 2 to 10 cm long with minute bracts at  base; sepals 5, united at base, glabrous, persistent, 8 mm long, oblong, obtuse or acute, usually equal in length, may be brownish-pink; corolla funnel-shaped; petals united, 3 to 5 cm long, 2.5 cm or more in diameter, pink or pale lilac or purple (rarely white), often with dark purple center, 5 lobed; stamens 5, alternate to corolla lobes, inserted on corolla near base, shorter than petals; filaments slender and hairy at base; anthers dehisce longitudinally, pollen globular; ovary superior, glabrous, 2-celled (sometimes 4) with 4 ovules; style simple; stigma capitate and simple with 2 or 3 rounded lobes; fruit a spherical or ovoid capsule 6 to 10 mm long, thin walled, surrounded by persistent sepals, dehiscing by 4 (rarely 6) valves, or irregularly; seeds 4 or less, grayish, densely pubescent or at times glabrous"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 414).

"Creeping or floating commonly subaquatic vine; only in fresh water; leaves variable, commonly oblong-lanceolate, the base hastate or truncate, commonly 5-15 cm long and 2-10 cm wide, on long petioles 3-10 cm long; flowers several in cymes, peduncles to nearly 20 cm, pedicels 2-6 cm; calyx-lobes obtuse, ovate-oblong, just under 1 cm long; corolla usually 4-5 cm long, pinkish-violet, darker in the throat (rarely nearly white); fruit to 1 cm long; seeds finely pubescent" (Stone, 1970; p. 491).

Habitat/ecology:  Fresh water aquatic.  Cultivated for edible leaves.  "A marginal, creeping, perennial aquatic weed that may spread over the surface of a pond or of an irrigation or drainage ditch. [It] can behave as an aquatic, semi-aquatic, or a terrestrial plant with reduced leaves and stems in dry months.  When soil moisture is lacking, it may appear to be in hibernation.  It can be found in flooded lowland fields and marshes, in dense masses in rice field ditches, or wherever there is soggy soil.  Above all else, it is a principal marginal creeper on the banks of muddy streams and ponds, awaiting the opportunity to reach out over the water surfaces to form mats with other vegetation" (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 412, 414).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized in streams, ponds, and taro paddies" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 555, 1873). In New Caledonia, "cultivé pour les feuilles comestibles, vendues au Marché de Nouméa, parfois spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 40).

Propagation:  Water-borne seed and rooting from nodes and pieces.

Native range:  Old World tropics.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31393 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 148467)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 148466)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 39120)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 148468)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1944) (voucher ID: BISH 696878)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 148462)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 284 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 148463)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 7)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 148458)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 148461)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 429622)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 15)
Cultivated, Malem; naturalized near lelu.
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 80)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4152 (NY, PTBG), K. Nagata 1480 (BISH), L. Stemmermann 3437 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 129621)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 422316)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 410836)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 148464)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 586785)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island probably native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: Smith 7967
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 148404)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island probably native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 59)
Vouchers cited: DA 13489, DA 10463, Harwood 11
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 33894)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island probably native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: DA 10245
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island probably native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 59)
Vouchers cited: DA 11389, DA 9436, DA 10543, DA 9537, DA 422, DA 9228 (McKee 2793), DA 5653, DA 10585
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 33893)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 84)
Voucher cited: Moore 15
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10640 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 643064)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37206)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 84)
Voucher cited: BRY 26520
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 84)
Voucher cited: Florence 5364
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5364 (PAP)
Naturalisée. De culture rare à Tahiti.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492279)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 491)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 148465)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 148469)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 148470)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 148471)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 148472)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 148473)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438142)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: C. Imada 99-27 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 555)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 555)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 29)
Voucher: Imada 2003-179 (BISH 697790)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697790)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Probably in cultivation. Presence not confirmed.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 7)
"Rare; small patch of vines towards north end of the island, ocean road, probably planted in nearby wetland".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 83)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 116-117)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 24 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 40)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 11307, MacKee 21403, MacKee 33211
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 148459)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 573305)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 60)
Voucher: Lorence 9907 (PFBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 200)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 276)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 275)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 60)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 148460)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 463)
Sporadic; near dwellings on swampy land, in ponds, ditches and slowly-flowing streams.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands possibly introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 368)
In stagnant streams, fresh-water swamps, and pools; widely used as food, perhaps introduced.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Parham, B. E. V. (1972)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 83)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Moderate invader.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Buelow 787
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 53)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Whistler 6031
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-9)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 222)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 412)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 412)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 215)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 51)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 412)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 116)
Possibly naturalized.
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (pp. 10-11)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 27)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37873)
Taxon name on voucher: Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  On US Federal noxious weed list.

Introduced to Samoa in 1956 per Parham (1972; p. 139).

Commonly used as a food plant in Asia.

Planting of this species in the State of Florida (U.S.) is prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Physical:  Mechanical removal.

Chemical:  "Chemical treatment with 2,4-D sodium salt, 2,4,5-T or MCPA"  (Weber, 2003; p. 215).

Additional information:
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Photo and additional information at the University of Guam "Plants of Guam" web site.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).

Additional online information about Ipomoea aquatica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Ipomoea aquatica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Ipomoea aquatica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM276(Blackburn, B. 143).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM275(Blackburn, B. 171).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 148470 (collector unknown 236).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 148472 (Thompson, J.B. 48).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 148471 (Nelson, P. 236).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 148473 (Nelson, P. 236).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1944. Voucher specimen #BISH 696878 (Cameron, E.R.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 39120 (Fosberg, F.R. 25275).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 148458 (Fosberg, F.R. 24417).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 148459 (Fosberg, F.R. 25891).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 148460 (Fosberg, F.R. 25872).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 148468 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2912).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 573305 (Fosberg, F.R. 25891).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 148462 (Wong, C.C.Y. 210).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 148464 (Wong, C.C.Y 310).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 148461 (Anderson, D. 754).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 148465 (Anderson, D. 39).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 148463 (Anderson, D. 1103).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 148466 (Fosberg, F.R. 31884).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 148467 (Fosberg, F.R. 31393).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 148469 (Fosberg, F.R. 31244).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 148404 (Smith, A.C. 7967).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 33893 (Nand, S. 10585).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1963. Voucher specimen #BISH 33894 (Kuruvoli, I. 13489).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 410836 (Fosberg, F.R. 46965).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 422316 (Nagata, K.M. 1480).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 129621 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3437).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 429622 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3434).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438142 (Fosberg, F.R. 58338).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 586785 (Fosberg, F.R. 60034).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492279 (Florence, J. 5364).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 643064 (Florence 10640).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2003. Voucher specimen #BISH 697790 (C.Imada 2003-179).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Haselwood, E. L./Motter, G. G. 1983. Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds. Second edition, revised and expanded by Robert T. Hirano. University of Hawaii Press. 491 pp.

Heine, Heino. 1984. 13. Convolvulacées. In: Morat, Ph.. et H. S. MacKee. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp.

Hunsberger, A. G. B. 2001. Invasive and banned plants of Miami-Dade County. U. of Fl. Extension. 3 pp.

Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. 2000. New Hawaiian plant records for 1999. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 63:9-16.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. 1996. Giddi nge gakiiy nu Wa‘ab: Plants, People and Ecology in Yap State. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. 1985. Contribution à la connaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis & Futuna. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4e sér., 7, section B. Adansonia 3 : 259-329.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG37206(Art Whistler W 4881).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG37873(Art Whistler 9745).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2008. Voucher specimen #PTBG200(David H. Lorence 9907).

Parham, B. E. V. 1972. Plants of Samoa. New Zealand Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research Information Series No. 85, Wellington. 162 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Porcher, Michel H. 2013. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne, Australia. Online resource.

Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: National Reports & Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa. 185 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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Stemmermann, Lani. 1981. A guide to Pacific wetland plants. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Honolulu District. 118 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

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Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Thaman, R. R. 1987. Plants of Kiribati: a listing and analysis of vernacular names. Atoll Res. Bull. 296:1-42.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

Topp, J. M. W. 1988. An annotated check list of the flora of Diego Garcia, British Ocean Territory. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 313. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 21 pp.

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U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

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Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2006. Plants of Kili Island, Marshall Islands. Unpublished checklist. 12 pp.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.